Wednesday, July 31, 2019
We live in a Ã¢â¬Å"globalÃ¢â¬ world now. Corporate globalization is prevalent nearly everywhere. Travel is more common than ever before. We get news in our homes about any place in the world seconds after it happens. The internet allows us to connect with people all over the world. It allows us to stay in touch with people as we move all over the world as well. We even have an international language! English is spoken (by at least some portions of the population) nearly everywhere you go. Everyone has the potential of being a Global Citizen if they wish to but it takes courage, commitment, and a sense of humour to become one. Global citizenship might sound like a vague concept for academics but in fact itÃ¢â¬â¢s a very practical way of looking at the world which anyone, if given the opportunity, can relate to. In the context of globalization, thinking and acting as a global citizen is immensely important and can bring real benefits. To have a full insight of what it means to be a Ã¢â¬Å"global citizenÃ¢â¬ , one needs to understand what it means to be a citizen. A citizen is a native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection (distinguished from alien). It also refers to a person owing loyalty to and entitled by birth or naturalization to the protection of a state or nation. According to some accounts, citizenship is motivated by local interests (love of family, communal fairness, self-interest), global interests (a sense of universal equality), and concern for fellow human beings, human rights and human dignity. The key tenets of global citizenship include respect for any and all fellow global citizens, regardless of race, religion or creed and give rise to a universal sympathy beyond the barriers of nationality. At Oxfam Education, Global Citizenship is believed to be more than the sum of its parts. It goes beyond simply knowing that we are citizens of the globe to an acknowledgement of our responsibilities both to each other and to the Earth itself. Global Citizenship is about understanding the need to tackle injustice and inequality, and having the desire and ability to work actively to do so. It is about valuing the Earth as precious and unique, and safeguarding the future for those coming after us. Ã¢â¬Å" Global citizenship can be defined as a moral and ethical disposition which can guide the understanding of individuals or groups of local and global contexts, and remind them of their relative responsibilities withinÃ various communities (Barack Obama , 2008). Global Citizenship is a way of thinking and behaving. It is an outlook on life, a belief that we can make a difference. When translated into participatory action, global citizenship entails a responsibility to reduce international inequality (both social and economic), to refrain from action which compromises an individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being, and avoids contributing to environmental degradation. A typical example of a Global Citizen is someone who: is aware of the wider world and has a sense of their own role as a world citizen; respects and values diversity;Ã has an understanding of how the world works economically, politically, socially, culturally, technologically and environmentally; is outraged by social injustice;Ã participates in and contributes to the community at a range of levels from local to global; is willing to act to make the world a more sustainable place; takes responsibility for his/her actions. To create a world of Global Citizens, education must be a priority. Though not as an additional subject but as an ethos that can be promoted in class through teaching the existing curriculum in a way that highlights aspects such as social justice, the appreciation of diversity and the importance of sustainable development. In the wider school setting, Global Citizenship can be reflected in the way you relate to those around you. As Global Citizens it is of utmost importance to know that we were born in this world and not aliens, and we also owe our allegiance to the Ã¢â¬Å"governmentÃ¢â¬ which we are citizens of. We must also protect our country Ã¢â¬â the world Ã¢â¬â when called on to do this. If our homeplace is attacked, with bombs or soldiers or internal rioting and terrorism, we are required to stand up and defend it. As citizens of the world, we must stand up, truly, to the attack on our home that is occurring on a daily basis. We must stand up to the environmental degr adation that is tearing apart our land and depleting our water. If we are citizens of the world, it is imperative that we stand up and protect our country if it is being threatened. The only way to truly achieve a lasting change is to further develop a globally connected mindset and engage those around to foster fair, equal and sustained partnerships with one another in this world. For this reason I, as a Global Citizen, will strive to reach aÃ deeper understanding of issues relevant to global poverty; and act with compassion, serving as an advocate and activist for positive change in the world. I also pledge to the following: I will seek innovative means to address global issues such as poverty e.t.c I will take it upon myself to think critically about the social and environmental consequences of my actions as it might have either positive or negative impact on otherparts of the world as well as future generations. I will make purchases carefully, taking into account the social and environmental factors of the creation and transport of all consumer goods and also minimize the waste I produce so as make a positive impact on the environment. I will build awareness about issues of social and environmental justice in any and all communities that I am a part of. In whatever field I find myself employed, I will do everything I can to ensure that it adheres to the utmost standards of social and environmental consideration. I understand that the only way to truly achieve lasting change is to further develop a globally connected mindset and engage those around me to foster fair, equal and sustained partnerships with others in this world.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Nicholas II played, by far the biggest role in his downfall as the Tsar of Russia. Certain aspects of his behaviour definitely contributed to bringing down the Russian empire, however most of these qualities were not weaknesses in character but qualities associated with poor leadership. By weakness, I mean being easily influenced and controlled by others. Nicholas was a firm believer in autocracy and was virtually unmoveable in this belief. This unconscionable belief illustrated how he stuck to his ways, although in early years as Tsar, his uncles had a huge influence on him. The fall of the Russian empire was not all a result of NicholasÃ¢â¬â¢ character and poor leadership but also the huge socio-economic changes as well as the outbreak of WW1, which hugely influenced the coming about of and the timing of the Russian revolution. In 1905 Russia had experienced a year of revolution and by the end of the year Tsar Nicholas had managed to keep power as he had promised a reform which h ad divided his opponents and because he had kept the support of the army. In March 1917 the Tsar abdicated because he lacked the support from both the Duma and the army. After a week of unsettlement in Petrograd, Russia had become a republic. Russia was a massive empire, stretching from Poland to the pacific and home to many different languages, religions and cultures. For the Tsar ruling such a massive nation was difficult and he soon found himself with too much pressure and weight on his shoulders. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to keep up with the needs of his people and so this contributed to the industrial revolution in 1917. There are many long term causes for this while the short term trigger was clearly World War 1. During the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s there were several events and issues which threatened the authority of the Tsar. Living and working conditions of workers and peasants were unwarranted. Life for peasants was brutal, often short, and quite unpromising. Until 1861, most peasants were illiterate and owned by their landlords. After emancipation their living conditions were still primitive. Many were in debt to their landlords. Unrest among peasants was extremely widespread. Workers on the other hand, could not afford decent housing as their wages were too low. Although workers were paid commission per piece on a low rate, they too had heavy taxation on food and goods. The government, aware of the growing discontent, became worried as ideas of revolution began to spread among the poor. Russia was an autocracy whichÃ meant that there was no parliament. The Tsar made the laws and appointed and dismissed ministers as he pleased. His authority was upheld by Church leaders, the Orthodox and the Okhrana who were the Russian secret police. There was an extreme lack of rights as political parties and trade unions were illegal. This left the middle class, urban workers and peasants dissatisfied. Riots, strikes and protests were taking place across Russia. As a solution to these problems, the government decided to have a war against Japan. When the war began in 1904, the Tsar had hoped, that if Russia was successful, people would stop criticizing his government and he would be popular again. Instead, Russia suffered a terrible and humiliating defeat, weakening the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and position. In cities and towns across Russia, many strikers set up councils called Ã¢â¬Å"SovietsÃ¢â¬ , which became an alternative government. As food and raw materials ran short, scores of workers found themselves out of work. On the 22nd of January 1905, an incident called Ã¢â¬Å"Bloody SundayÃ¢â¬ sparked revolution. A mass of 200,000 workers and their families marched towards the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s Winter Palace to present him with a petition. The workers were asking for better conditions. However, outside the Winter Palace they were met by troops and police. Even though the protestors came in peace, shots were fired and over 500 marchers were killed. The extent of the unrest forced Tsar Nicholas II to make concessions. In October 1905 he issued a document called the October Manifesto. In this document, the Tsar promised that there would be a parliament elected called a Ã¢â¬ËDum aÃ¢â¬â¢ to make the laws, and basic rights for the Russian people. Just as the Tsar had planned, these concessions divided his opponents. The middle class were now satisfied but the workers and peasants were not. They did not trust the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s promises as these solutions didnÃ¢â¬â¢t solve their economic issues. The TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s new Prime Minister, Count Sergei Witte, decided in December that it was time to end the revolution. Opposition in the towns and cities was suppressed, as many were killed or exiled. The revolution ended in March 1917. The Tsar had been Ã¢â¬Å"savedÃ¢â¬ , and had managed to keep power. This was because he had the support of the army, he gave concessions and basic rights, introduced a parliament and divided the opposition. Although there was now an opportunity to make Russia a constitutional monarchy, there was no guarantee that the Tsar would keep his promises. However, by early 1917, Tsar Nicholas II had lost completeÃ support. This was due to several factors. After issuing the October Manifesto in 1905, the Tsar decided he would take action to prevent further revolution. The Tsar a nd Prime Minister Peter Stolypin used repression against terrorists and revolutionary groups in an attempt to subdue the unrest. Stolypin then attempted to solve the problem of peasant unrest and poverty by cancelling the redemption payments and modernizing farming. Working conditions among the city factory workers were also improved, with factory inspections and insurance schemes introduced. These efforts were in vain, as unrest throughout Russia continued. The Tsar did not fulfill the promises he made in the October Manifesto, and Russia did not become a constitutional monarchy. The Tsar stated that he possessed supreme autocratic power and could dismiss the duma and call elections. Even though farming had been Ã¢â¬Å"modernizedÃ¢â¬ , the peasant population was growing increasingly large, creating further poverty and unrest among peasants. Industrial unrest also continued as strikers on the goldfields were being shot by soldiers. Although Stolypin was competent and determined, he was assassinated by a revolutionary in 1911. The emerging influence of Rasputin in the government became clear after 1915. Raspu tin was a Siberian peasant whose full name was Gregory Rasputin. He was said to be a holy man and was sure of having received, from god, a gift for healing. The TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Alexei, suffered from haemophilia and Rasputin was brought in to try to heal him. Rasputin had won the devotion of both the Tsarina, Alexandra, and the Tsar, Nicholas II, after controlling the internal bleeding of Alexei. Both the Tsar and Tsarina saw Rasputin as their friend. While the Tsar was absent at the front with the Army, the Tsarina virtually controlled Russia, and Rasputin became her personal advisor. He influenced the Tsar on his appointing and dismissing of government ministers, which brought a great deal of discredit on the royal family. In peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes Rasputin played against the Romanov reputation. He was found to have regularly joined in drinking parties, participated in orgies and was seen with prostitutes. He was nicknamed the Ã¢â¬Ëholy devilÃ¢â¬â¢ and despised by the church representatives. In an attempt to save the monarchy from future scandal, Rasputin was murdered in December 1916, by a group a nobles. Instead of solving RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s problems, this only increased dissatisfaction with the Tsar. By this stage, there was a notable lack of competent leaders, as once again the Tsar wasÃ struggling to maintain power. Involvement in World War I left Russia in a state of hopelessness. After the Tsar decided to leave his country and takeover the post in 1915, the government turned into chaos. Massive troop movements across Russia caused regular bread shortages in the cities and towns. There was also unfair distribution of food, inadequacy of sources of supply and an immense and rapid increase in the cost of living. As a result of the unbearable conditions of everyday life, strong feelings of hostility and opposition to the government were widespread. In terms of the war itself, RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s army suffered terribly. Within the first six weeks, 250,000 Russian soldiers h ad been killed, and by the end of 1914 over 1 million Russian soldiers had been lost to the war. The month of March 1917 was one of utter discontent and mayhem. On Wednesday 7th March, a major steel works company locked out 20,000 workers as pay talks broke down. The 20,000 now angry works were out on the street, joined by other factory workers who went on strike in support. Within 3 days, a total of 250,000 workers were on strike. There was no public transport or newspapers and food shortages continued. After mutinies occurred in parts of the army, the Tsar was sent a telegram informing him that the situation in Russia was serious. The Tsar responded by telling the Duma to stop meeting. By Monday 12th March, various units sent to fight the strikers and mutinies were defecting. The Duma held a meeting and established a 12 man Ã¢â¬Å"Provisional CommitteeÃ¢â¬ . Revolutionaries set up a Ã¢â¬Å"SovietÃ¢â¬ of workers and soldiers in Petrograd. Both wanted to take over the government. After one week of complete havoc, the Tsar sent a telegram to the Duma stating that he would sh are power. The Army Generals replied and told him that it was too late as none of the Army supported him. On Thursday 15th March, revolutionaries halted the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s train only 250km away from Petrograd. He had no choice but to agree to abdicate and give the throne to Alexei. After realizing that Alexei was too sick to become Tsar, the throne was given to his brother Grand Duke Michael. Fearing that he would be just as unpopular as Nicholas, he too abdicated. Russia was now a republic as there was no longer royalty or monarchy. Tsar Nicholas II had lost support because he failed in his duties to provide for and rule his country effectively. Nicholas allowed himself to be easily sued by the people and opinions around him. He did not have to force and fierceÃ determination to rule a country and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in himself enough. In the source below he states that he never wanted to be Tsar of Russia and so in term he failed. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t experienced and trained in leadership and never had the support of his father leading from beside him. From the moment Nicholas became Ts ar, the welfare of Russia and its people became the last priority. Nicholas himself, was the main reason why he failed as his role as the Tsar of Russia. Although the Tsar was able to keep power in 1905, after losing the support of his army and not fulfilling the promises stated in the October Manifesto, growing unrest among the people was inevitable. It was no surprise that by 1917 he had lost support from his country. Nicholas was not brought up to be a leader and to be in control and so when the time came for him to lead, he was unable to do so properly. His firm beliefs and ways of life allowed little room for opinion, causing unrest and later losing vital support from governments and leaders and after losing the Japanese war he lost the respect of the army. BIBLIOGRAPHY: About.com Ã¢â¬â Russian History 2014 15.3.14 * http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/russiaandukraine/a/Causes-Of-The-Russian-Revolution.htm All class worksheets, booklets and slide shows Histor-C November 11 2010 15.3.14 * http://historc.wordpress.com/2010/11/11/12c-how-far-was-nicholas-ii-responsible-for-his-own-downfall/ History learning site Ã¢â¬â Rasputin 201317.3.14 * http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/rasputin.htm Maureen Anderson Ã¢â¬ËRetrospectiveÃ¢â¬â¢ Year 11 Modern History Jacaranda Press 2007 * Chapter Titled Ã¢â¬â The Fall of the Tsarist Regime Parisia201224.3.14 * http://www.parisia.com/paris/romanov/paris.php?id=12 Philip Ingram Ã¢â¬ËRussia and the USSR 1905-1991Ã¢â¬â¢ Cambridge University Press 2005 * The events of 1905, the first world war etcÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Skwirk Ã¢â¬â interactive schooling 2014 19.3.14
The Desire to Change the Subservient Role of Women in Old Chinese Society Chinese women stayed in an unequal status with men in old Chinese Society. Shen CongwenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Xiao XiaoÃ¢â¬ and Ding lingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"When I Was in Xia VillageÃ¢â¬ are two stories about village womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives during modern time in China. The stories in both of these works present an important traditional Chinese belief that it is profitable to raise geese than to raise daughter. In Ã¢â¬Å"Xiao XiaoÃ¢â¬ , she is a twelve-year-old girl who is married with a two-year-old husband, Chunguan, and as his caretaker in her youth. While Ã¢â¬Å"When I was in Xia VillageÃ¢â¬ is a period when narrator spends his/her time in Xia village and make friends with a village girl Zhenzhen. She is sent to Japan to spy Japanese government after she is raped by Japanese soldiers. When she goes back village due to her disease, people look down upon her and laugh at her. Finally she runs away from Xiao DabaoÃ¢â¬â¢s propose and seeks for a fresh life in city. Xiaoxiao and Zhenzhen have something in common that they are both independent-minded woman; also they are from village and ever desired to live in city to find new life and to have education; they live under the tradition of gender discrimination in old China. While their experiences are different, and, at the end, Zhenzhen is seeking for her new life in another place, yet we see Xiaoxiao and her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s family is still within traditions in their small village. In menÃ¢â¬â¢s world, women are like a tool which they can use to make their life good, but we see some of women have desire to change their subservient role to become independent in Chinese society. Xiaoxiao and Zhenzhen are independent-minded women compared to other women at that time in Chinese society. They are not afraid of break down the present life and live in their owns. When XiaoxiaoÃ¢â¬â¢s grandpa and other relatives make joke on her about figuring out her should become a coed when she grows up. Then she has thinking that how coedsÃ¢â¬â¢ life is, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦she felt vague stirrings of unrest, and took to imagining herself as a Ã¢â¬ËcoedÃ¢â¬â¢. Would she behave like the Ã¢â¬ËcoedÃ¢â¬â¢ Grandfather talked about? In any case, there was nothing frightful about these Ã¢â¬ËcoedsÃ¢â¬â¢ and so these notions began to occupy this smile girlÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts for the first timeÃ¢â¬ (Shen 86). Although the author does not mention XiaoxiaoÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to become a coed directly in the story, I feel that Xiaoxiao wants to have a different life from her present life as a caretaker in village. She is young and hopes her life to be colorful and meaningful. After her stomach gets bigger, she wants to have a new life in city, Ã¢â¬Å"After a while, Xiaoxiao would finger her snakelike black braid, and, thinking of life in the city, she said: Ã¢â¬ËBrother Motley, why donÃ¢â¬â¢t we go where we can be free in the city and find work there? What do you say? Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Shen 91). She knows if she keeps living with her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s family, she would go to dead. No more clearly than herself that she knows her situation is worse. If she elopes with Brother Motley, she could be same as those coeds in the school and live her own life with a normal marriage. Obviously, Xiaoxiao has her idea what her life she wants. In Ã¢â¬Å"When I was in Xia VillageÃ¢â¬ , Zhenzhen is an independent-mind woman as well. Even though she has been raped and treated unrespectable. Zhenzhen does not care about surrounding peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s misunderstandings. For othersÃ¢â¬â¢ sneer, she thinks she need to find another life but not surrender to marry Xiao Dabao, so she said to narrator Ã¢â¬Å"I feel that living among strangers and keeping busy would be better than living at home where people know meÃ¢â¬ ¦ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s better for each of us to go our own separate ways than it is to have everyone stay together in one place. IÃ¢â¬â¢m doing this for myself, but IÃ¢â¬â¢m doing it for the others Ã¢â¬Å" (Ding 146). Just like Xiaoxiao, Zhenzhen wants a new life in city and to start over. She hopes in a new place where not many people know her, so she could start over, Ã¢â¬Å"A personÃ¢â¬â¢s life is not just for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s father and mother, or even for oneself. Some have called me young, inexperienced, and bad-tempered. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t dispute it. There are some things that I just have to keep to myselfÃ¢â¬ (Ding 146). From these two stories, Xiaoxiao and Zhenzhen are two women who have their own thought instead of under control of traditions. Xiaoxiao and Zhenzhen have the same desire which moving from village to city. On one hand, Xiaoxiao wants to escape from her offence, on the other hand, she has desire to have sex with a real man, she cannot wait her little husband to grow up when she is twenty years old. So she cheats on her little husband Ã¢â¬Å"involuntarilyÃ¢â¬ on surface. In addition, her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s families take her in but she never drops the idea to be like a coed, Ã¢â¬Å"One day, word spread that the coeds were back again. When Xiaoxiaoheard this, she eyes stared out unseeing, as if in a daze, her gaze fixed on the eastern horizon for some timeÃ¢â¬ (Shen 93). She bent on joining the coeds on their way to the big city in search of freedom, unfortunately she is discovered. I guess Xiaoxiao does not have any ideas about having education in the city; she just has to get away from village. However, from her grandpaÃ¢â¬â¢s description on coed, she is interested in coedÃ¢â¬â¢s life and she thinks if she becomes a member of coed, she has holidays and does not need to do farm works. Zhenzhen is different. Although she is from village too, she has live in Japan many years. So she knows she goes to city because she wants a bright future and escape the sad village then to be educated in order to get a job with other communists, Ã¢â¬Å"What I do feel is that after I go to [YanÃ¢â¬â¢an], IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be in a new situation. I will be in a new situation. I will be able to start life freshÃ¢â¬ (Ding 146). Their movements illustrate that new Chinese women are changing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s views and have sense of education is more and more important. Life in city is realistic and bright for them. Gender roles is very similar between Ã¢â¬Å"XiaoxiaoÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"When I Was in Xia VillageÃ¢â¬ , they both present that women stand subservient role in society. Starting from XiaoxiaoÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage, her marriage is arranged by her uncle when she is only twelve. People at that time set this tradition because they think girl is useless because daughters will be othersÃ¢â¬â¢ sooner or later, so it is better to send her earlier to save familyÃ¢â¬â¢s food. To the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s family, accept a girl into their family is not only a way to take care of children, but also add a worker to help farming as a free labor. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why to be contrast with other female students in town, Xiaoxiao is adulterer. To punish XiaoxiaoÃ¢â¬â¢s cheating on her husband and families, Xiaoxiao is arranged to wait for her second marriage but no one come. Nevertheless, Xiaoxiao is lucky that her child turns out is a boy; she does not have to be married off after all. This tradition does not change after Xiaoxiao, then her son who is ten-year-old and have his wedding ceremony. Women in tradition could not hold any position of power. In the other story, people in Xia village are uneducated, so when Zhenzhen came back from Japan, they laughed at her and think she is dirty. Women have physical disadvantage than man, therefore, chastity becomes extremely crucial especially at that time. People in the village can not understand her grievance, this is one of the reason why Zhenzhen wants to go to [XiÃ¢â¬â¢an] where most people are educated, at least not so care about her background. No matter from which aspect, Xiaoxiao and Zhenzhen seems like a tool in men ruled the world. Xiaoxiao is portrayed as Ã¢â¬Å"objectÃ¢â¬ sold from a place to another. She could not have her own happiness because she belongs to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Zhenzhen looks like more freedom than Xiaoxiao physically, but in fact, she is slaved by internal. Something she cannot shake off is her hatred and interiority, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦in a very calm voice, she said, Ã¢â¬ËI canÃ¢â¬â¢t say that I hate him. I just feel now that IÃ¢â¬â¢m someone whoÃ¢â¬â¢s diseased. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a fact that I was abused by a large number of Jap devils. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember that exact number. In any case, IÃ¢â¬â¢m unclean, and with such a black mark I donÃ¢â¬â¢t expect any good fortune to come my wayÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Ding 146). Zhenzhen is used to her reputation and body to help Chinese government but at the end, she could not get any sympathy. These things always happened to women, but not men. In conclusion, Xiaoxiao and Zhenzhen are two uneducated women living in old Chinese society where unbalanced gender roles and old traditions exist. They both from village and dream to move to city meanwhile they have Ã¢â¬Å"sinsÃ¢â¬ could not be excused. Through their different experience, they have similarities that they both independent-minded to change their lives to take education in big city. The ending of stories are different that ZhenzhenÃ¢â¬â¢s regardless of objection enable her goes to city as she wants, but Xiaoxiao still stays in village and keeps her original life. In old Chinese society, woman is absolutely not profitable than men. So people use women like a functional object to help working or take care of family. I think women are living a hard life and very powerless in society. Even thought they want to take education to change their lives, reality makes them difficult. However, women play many different roles which cannot be ignored. The authors express their thought and show the current situation through these good works.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Write a short biography on James McGill Buchanan, an analysis of his economic theories, and his contributions to the welfare of society - Essay Example He was also, in 1963, at the senior most position at the Southern Economic Association; shortly after, in 1971, at the American Economic Association he served as vice president, and then for two years, 1983 and 1984, in a similar position at the Western Economic Association (Ã¢â¬Å"James M. BuchananÃ¢â¬ ). Buchanan coauthored Ã¢â¬ËThe Calculus of ConsentÃ¢â¬â¢ with Gordon Tullock as one of the products of thinking cultivated by reading a German article by Knut Wicksell, a Swedish economist(DiLorenzo 180). Wicksell was of the idea that the benefits taxpayers received should be directly linked to the taxes they pay. This implied that taxes and government spending would be agreed upon and validated, as opposed to the conventional view of the 1940s and even the current view. The book Ã¢â¬ËThe Calculus of ConsentÃ¢â¬â¢ revised WicksellÃ¢â¬â¢s idea, and referred to it as Ã¢â¬Ëworkable unanimityÃ¢â¬â¢, as they thought it impractical. This together with Ã¢â¬ËThe Economics of DemocracyÃ¢â¬â¢, a book by Anthony Down, gave birth to the field of public choice. Buchanan and Tullock even went on to initiate an academic journal- Public Choice. At this time, he raised dissimilarity between two levels of public choice; the first being during the making of the constitution and the second being after the constitution has been implemented. He has attempted to convert his fellow economists to this line of thinking, where they should focus more on the first level rather than on the second level as mere political players. To push this ideology farther, he published a journal- Constitutional Economics (Ã¢â¬Å"James M. BuchananÃ¢â¬ ). Buchanan also believed that welfare economics is skewed as costs are subjective. He pointed this out in an unusually ardent economics book- Costs and Choice. This was the book that he considered most essential yet to the Nobel Committee it was Ã¢â¬ËThe Calculus of ConsentÃ¢â¬â¢. In the book, BuchananÃ¢â¬â¢s aim
Sunday, July 28, 2019
IS-LM model Application - Assignment Example Being able to solely provide a solid comparison of such leaders makes the response legitimate enough (Ljunggren, 2012). RBC always accomplishes the liberty to the opening choice of its clientele. This is achieved mainly through the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation methods. One of the leading objectives of the bank is to be a prevailing North American monetary services firm known for its undisputed leading provision of incorporated monetary services in Canada (Ljunggren, 2012). This made RBC the best in class provision of individual and commercial monetary services in the United States of America. This made the banking services of RBC become a premier giver of chosen worldwide monetary services (Ljunggren, 2012). As part of their values, RBCÃ¢â¬â¢s innovative strategies produce ideologies and services to clientele to the bank and vice-versa. Working jointly is part of the innovation strategy of the bank, as well as individual accountability for high presentation. Diversity for development and innovation, and trust via incorporation in every exchange that the firm makes can also be achieved through such inno vation (Ljunggren,
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Summary - Essay Example to involve the OSHA under the cooperation program, Voluntary Protection Program (VPP), that encourage training and union reputation to keep worker injuries at a minimal rate, given that organizations are usually too focussed on their products and services to attend to the safety concerns of workers (Maguire 46). This action plan will involve all the major functions of the organization. A statement of conditions will be made. This is a guideline on the measures to be taken in case of safety emergencies. On the grounds and equipment, the material and equipment used in the production will be upgraded to modern standards so as to avoid safety violation. Modern equipment is computerized and safer because activities that are sensitive and risky are carried out by the machines instead of workers who are prone to error, one of main causes of accidents. The working condition of the equipment and materials is essential in ensuring the safety of the workers. Managers from the moulding, maintenance, and the assembly departments will be important in ensuring that the regular checks are made on the equipment to ensure the working condition is up to standard. To ensure the safety of employees, all the safety policies including the safety regulations, including the OSHA regulation will be incorporated, and those in contempt will be punished. A strict drug policy will be incorporated to ensure the safety of the workers and their colleague. This policy will apply to all the members of XYZ from the highest rank to the lowest rank. Risk assessment schedules will be conducted regularly in each department. The General Manager will demand consistent assessments regarding the activities of the workers and the conditions of the working environment. In implementing the action plan to raise the safety standards of the workplace, the management will initiate a multi-stakeholder plan to streamline the safety efforts of all the players. This will entail improving the both employee and
Friday, July 26, 2019
Contested globalisation and governance - Essay Example The main person responsible for coining the term globalization is considered to be Theodore Levitt. With the passage of time, the phenomenon has grown at a steady rate whereby the setting under which it is held is one that focuses on the global patterns related with the sociological findings. Globalization, for that matter, is also remarked as Internationalization since the nature of the two terms is on a worldwide scale more than anything else. However, on the part of the two terms, the one thing common however is the fact that these have identified themselves well with the changing (and growing) trends, where most of these are credited on the shoulders of the World War II, after which there has been a resurgent rat race nonetheless. The movement of commodities, people, information, money, technological developments, organizational infrastructures, legal frameworks and so on and so forth have only proved to all and sundry that globalization is a phenomenon and it is one that is here to stay for long. The world has become a global village due to globalization and it is a good omen if seen in the proper perspectives. Globalization entails within it the changing technological innovations, the improvement in structures and different infrastructures, the advancements in basic thinking mindset of man, his ability to break loose from the ordinary and reach out towards the unknown and in all essence do something which can bring about an ultimate change, for the better. (Kantor, 2001) Having said that, we need to understand that globalization is not just a phenomenon, it is the science of human evolution and since man has for long held fast to this belief, there can be no reason as to why he should not comprehend the basis of the phenomenon of globalization. It is a paradigm shift or a movement as we might call it, one that brings more stability within the ranks (where it is applied) and unison in the efforts and activities of all concerned. More
Thursday, July 25, 2019
ANALYZE A whitman's poetry - Essay Example In his figurative pieces were explored themes pertaining to the love of country, manhood, death, the enduring virtues of hope and courage, ideal state of heroism, conquest, and manÃ¢â¬â¢s state of nature. As WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s poems bring across the essence of each theme, a critical reader may readily unfold the capacity of engaging in the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s realm of personal insights and profound understanding of the war that occurred not at all indifferent to him. To such a reader, Whitman would appear to be communicating a rich narrative in which he is a significant part of, for the imagery in his poems possesses the quality of concrete details and appropriate word choice that likely adheres to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s recollection. This is quite evident in the piece Ã¢â¬Å"A Sight in Camp in the Daybreak Gray and DimÃ¢â¬ that is substantiated by the lines Ã¢â¬Å"Three forms I see on stretchers lying, brought out there untended lying, / Over each the blanket spread, ample brownish woolen blanke t / Gray and heavy blanket, folding, covering allÃ¢â¬ ( __ 16). ... I saw with hand uplifted, menacing, brandishing, Ã¢â¬ ¦ The noble son on sinewy feet advancing, / I saw, out of the land of prairies, land of OhioÃ¢â¬â¢s waters and of IndianaÃ¢â¬ (10). While the Ã¢â¬Ënoble sonÃ¢â¬â¢ seemingly refers to a man with heroic traits, the same goes for someone who, by all means, did not quit the battlefield no matter how Ã¢â¬Ëevil daysÃ¢â¬â¢ or extreme situations befell him. Ã¢â¬ËSinewyÃ¢â¬â¢ calls for equivalent descriptions Ã¢â¬ËvigorousÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËmuscularÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â something made of fiber with persevering strength and such is the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s thought of the armed men who crossed borders, state after state, to advance their cause and combat to triumph for it. Apparently, this suggests a type of courage that is subject to the extent of manÃ¢â¬â¢s will which, to WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s perception, seemed to have remained steadfast. On addressing the theme of nationalism, similarly, WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s creation of elegy Ã¢â¬Å"O Captain! My Captain!Ã¢â¬ could prove to be the closest, if not the most, thematically relevant piece about a manÃ¢â¬â¢s love for his nation. Written in honor of Abraham Lincoln, after the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 1865, Whitman treats Lincoln the Ã¢â¬ËcaptainÃ¢â¬â¢ in command of ship at an exclamatory tone of pride. It is as though the ship is used as a metaphor to the divided country whereas the Ã¢â¬Ëfearful tripÃ¢â¬â¢ embodies the Civil War and all the revolutionary efforts which the U.S. back then had to go through. Lincoln is known as the leader who championed the passing of the 13th Amendment which primarily aimed to abolish black slavery, being the root cause of secession by the South or to which separatism which identified the Union from Confederacy owed its painful existence. Though the poet conveyed no specific historical account of the war and the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments, the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Corrections Trend Evaluation (Indi) - Essay Example A new theory came up, which comprised of humane ways of dealing with law breakers. It was from 1787, that hard labor, total abstinence and solitary confinement started proving to be the most effective means in re- forming law breakers, thus the course of penal history was changed and the platform for operation of institutional and community based corrections systems born (Carlson & Garrett, 1999). However, the concept of solitary confinement in review of correctional practice reveals that the emphasis on the isolation, punishment and segregation of the offender from the community, is being outdated by emerging standards of human civilization. The prevailing innovations in correctional facilities are based on the recognition that they have been effective in the goals of justice and penalty, but failed in performing the function of rehabilitation and offender reform. New models of imprisonment and corrections are being searched for, in order to protect the fundamental principles of jus tice in a democratic society. Provision for genuine implementation of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s power over the law breakers are also being looked into (Diiulio, 1990). The reasons for this extensive trend reversal are numerous. Philosophically, the return to the simple ways regarding disciplinary action against law breakers is politically attractive, thus gaining rapid recognition. Within and without the criminal justice system, there is a large number of people who prefer the uncomplicated processes of justice. If you look at our institutions and communities from a practical perspective, you will clearly see that the prevailing criminal justice system has yielded very poor results. The rate which prisoners return to institutions due to new convictions is alarmingly high. It is the inability of the prevailing criminal justice system to curb crime and the failure of correctional facilities to correct, that has led to the failure of the corrections. The main inhibitor however is the way in whi ch the criminal justice system has been perceived in its work and mission. The definition of correction in a societal view point does not state nor imply what corrections should try to achieve. Correction institutions have many purposes, rehabilitation being only one. Although if the correctional processes were truly rehabilitative, then it should not be restricted to the convicted individual, but rather be extended to all who need them. Corrections can contribute more than it does to crime reduction, but it is sad to note the fact that in the prevailing era, the pursuit of a single purpose for corrections be it rehabilitation or punishment, is doomed to failure (Harnsberger, 2011). It is natural for human beings to resist coercion. It is evident in our institutions and communities that correctional coercion success rate is basically none existent. We can observe the concept of total system planning, which is a process that comes up with feedback from specific service area after ana lyzing and defining its problems. The total system planning process describes the mode and level of interactions between activities of one system like corrections, and those of others like law enforcement or courts. A change in any single component however small it may be, will ripple through and affect all the other components. When this concept example and consideration is applied to
The effect of the recent financial crisis and regulatory implications for ( your jurisdiction of choice ) but not US or UK ((( I would prefer Dubia ))) - Essay Example the structure and the principles of the financial markets have been proved to have a critical role in the increase of the pressure against the economies internationally; however, there are countries, like Dubai, which managed to keep their economy strong; The effects of financial crisis can be divided into two different categories: a) the effects referring to the national economy and b) the effects related to the firms and individuals that have interests on specific investments. Failures in the regulation of crisis in regard to the economy and the private sector have been identified; these failures have led to the instability of the markets or firms involved1; at the next level, the financial crisis have led to the differentiation of the role of risk Ã¢â¬â as a decisive factor in the development of financial policies. In this context, it can be noted that the financial crisis has led to the differentiation of the political decisions in regard to the rules that govern the markets worldwide. On the other hand, Claessens et al. (2010) supported that current crisis has many similarities with the financial crises of the past2; under these terms, the countries that have faced similar crises in the past should be more ready to face the c urrent recession; however, in the case of USA the above Ã¢â¬ËruleÃ¢â¬â¢ has not been verified. Moreover, the view of Claessens et al. (2010) can lead to the assumption that countries with no previous experiences of financial crisis are likely to fail in handling the recent recession; Dubai had not face such a crisis in the past; the crisis hit the country recently, i.e. after having affected all other countries; this fact cannot be easily explained. However, through the case of Dubai it was revealed that experience in crisis does not guarantee the effectiveness against a crisis; the country managed to exit the crisis even if the relevant pressure was extremely strong. Dubai is country characterized for the power of its economy; the financial
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Art History Term Paper - Essay Example These two paintings i.e. Picasso`s Ã¢â¬ËWoman with a MandolinÃ¢â¬â¢ and ModiglianiÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËPortrait of artist`s WifeÃ¢â¬â¢ there is an inherent theme which implies that each person is subject to their own perception and same is the case with the artists; i.e. they paint their subjects not as an objective reality rather as how they perceive them to be. For this reason, both these paintings diverge from the standard paintings of their times which focus more on the sitter and less on their own sense of perception on these paintings. Thus, the paper will aim at exploring various dimensions to add depth to the thesis predicated here. Firstly, the point of concern with reference to these two paintings is the composition style which depicts their sense of perception. The painting by Picasso i.e. Girl with a Mandolin is composed in his classic cubist style which he was employing vehemently during the era. The paintings depict the subject via successive squares used as silhouette to give a distinctive touch to the painting. Though the composition style is simplistic, yet perspective is added by using minimalistic elements yet keeping a balance between the colors, shape and even the form of the painting. Similarly, the painting of Modigliani`s wife expresses modernity in modern style which is different from that of Picasso`s cubist one. He gives a sense of his own perception to him painting which may be characterized by elongated face and figures, also simple composition of his wife`s persona with little details in posture or expression. Therefore, a distinct character of the painter may be felt in these painters, ev en more than the character of the sitters. Picasso`s painting shows depth and simplicity, while Modigliani`s painting shows devotion and bohemianism, both being divergent from the composition styles of the popular artists. Both the paintings are similar in terms of composition when it comes to a thorough focus on shapes;
Monday, July 22, 2019
Discuss the role played by Mr. Morrison Essay Mr. Morrison symbolises the strength of Afro-Americans in the face of adversity. He is a source of courage and protection for the Logan family, acting almost as a guardian angel when papa is not home. There is an air of myth surrounding Mr. Morrison, created by factors such as his stature, his deep voice and scarred features. This makes him an interesting and thus successful character for Mildred Taylor. When the children first meet Mr. Morrison, his description relates directly to Mildred Taylors imagery. The attention that she pays to the significance of trees as an emblem of strength, influences her description of the powerful Mr. Morrison: The man was a human tree in height, towering high above papas six feet two inches. The long trunk of his massive body bulged with muscles The living strength and permanence of trees are a symbol of the strength which the black community draws from its history, tradition and inheritance, and the roots which have been put down in their land. Thus, the description of Mr. Morrison is in keeping with such imagery. The timing of Mr. Morrisons arrival assists Mildred Taylor in developing tension and suspense. He arrives on the scene in the wake of the news of the attack on The Berry Family. Mr. Morrison, we learn, was wrongly accused of starting a fight and then sacked from his job. This gives us an example of institutionalised racism and also hints that there may well be more incidents and fights. The children immediately warm to him and are deeply fascinated by his giant-like appearance. Mr. Morrisons attributes make him immune to the physical threats by which the local whites terrorise the black community. This gives the children courage and inspiration. As a result he is a figure who earns Staceys respect. Stacey becomes much closer to Mr. Morrison after he makes it plain that he will not be reporting the matter of the fight to with T. J to Staceys mother. Indeed, such is Mr. Morrisons positive influence, that Stacey shows increased maturity by telling his mother about the fight himself. On their way back from shopping in Vicksburg, Papa, Stacey and Mr. Morrison are ambushed by the Wallaces. Mr. Morrison shows his tremendous power by taking on three attackers and badly injuring two of them. In the following chapter he again demonstrates power and shrewd judgement too by lifting Kaleb Wallaces truck. This act is enough for him to avoid being drawn into fighting whilst still standing up for himself. By checking the truck for a gun first, Mr. Morrison shows an admirable measured determination not to be bullied. Furthermore, Mr. Morrison is a vital calming influence upon the headstrong Hammer when the childrens uncle is seeking to avenge Cassies humiliation in strawberry. The image of Mr. Morrison sat watching on the porch for the nightmen is a very powerful one. To the Logans he is a guardian angel figure, who protects with great strength, yet is otherwise the perfect example of calm. In the stories he tells to the family we learn of an horrific past in which his family were murdered by racists. His scars symbolise the healing power and capacity to endure that are characterstic of the persecuted black people. His voice like the roll of low thunder further emphasises Mr. Morrison as a key symbolic figure in the book, as this simile echoes the title. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Mildred Taylor section.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Experiments in Quantum Mechanics The theory of quantum mechanics developed when the classical theories of mechanics and electromagnetism were unable to provide explanation to the characteristics of atomic structure and electromagnetic radiationÃ (Rae, 2008). The appearance of quantum mechanics resulted in the emergence of a principle that has the ability to describe the nuclei, proton and neutron (Rae, 2008). Quantum theory has two sides, the first is the mathematical side and the second is the conceptual side. The mathematical side has been successful in estimating the atomic and subatomic phenomena, while the conceptual side Ã¢â¬Å"has been a subject of endless discussions without agreed conclusionsÃ¢â¬ (Thankappan, 1993). 1.0 Double Slit Experiment It is known that when particles are emitted through two slits two bands are formed, while when waves are passed through two slits interference pattern is formed on the back wall. When the crest of the first wave meets the trough of the second wave, the two waves cancel each other and destructive interference occurs which result in appearance of dark lines. On the other hand, when two crests or two troughs of the wave meet each other construction interference occurs and bright lines are formed. The elegant difference is blurred by quantum mechanics. When a stream of electrons passed through one slit, a single band is formed, but when electrons emitted through two slits an interference pattern is formed, but how could a piece of matters create an interference pattern like waves? Physicists thought that particles bounced each other and created the interference pattern. This time they decided to shoot the electrons one at a time, by this method it is impossible for electrons to interfere with each other. After a time the same interference pattern is formed. The conclusion was that the single electron leaves as a particle and becomes a wave of potential then it goes through both slits and interferes with itself to hit the wall like a particle (The particle is in two places at once), but mathematically it is even stranger that the electron goes through both slits, it goes through neither, it goes through just one slit or it goes through just the other. All of these possibilities are in superposition with each other (Khutoryansky, 2013). (Perimeter Institute, 2012) Figure 1.0 Double-slit apparatus showing the pattern of electron hits on the observing screen building up over time. This made the physicist completely puzzled and they decided to install a measuring device by one slit to see which slit the electrons actually pass through, but the quantum world is far more mysterious than they could have imagined. The electron decided to act differently because it felt that the observer watched it. When they observed the electron, the electron went back to behave like a little marble, it produced a pattern of two bands and not many interference pattern as it was expected. Physicists were Perplexed, they asked what is the matter? Is it Particles or waves? (Khutoryansky, 2013) After a while they have discovered that, when the electron was observed the wave function was collapsed. 1.1 The Explanation of double slit experiment A Physicist called Max Born, one of the founders of quantum mechanics came up with a new idea for what the wave equation described. Born said that the wave is not a smeared out of electron or anything else previously encountered in science. Instead, he declared that electrons are something about a probability wave (Probability distribution), that is Born argued that the size of the wave that any location predicts the likelihood of the electron being found there. Where the wave is big that is not where most of the electrons are, that is where the electrons are most likely to be, and that is very strange, so the electron on its own sees a jumble of possibilities (Khutoryansky, 2013). Ã¢â¬Å"You are not allowed to ask where is the electron right now, but you are allowed to ask if I look for the electron in this little particular of space, what is the likelihood I will find it there, and that bugs anyone!Ã¢â¬ (Peter Fisher, 2012). Finally, it is shown that the implication of this experiment is that matter can have both wave and particles properties. This is known as Ã¢â¬Å"Wave-Particle DualityÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Dual Nature of ParticlesÃ¢â¬ This is proposed by Louis de Broglie in 1923 leading to the birth of modern day quantum mechanics. Exhibiting particles or waves characteristics depends if a detector is observing the matter or not. The second implication of the double slit experiment is that the outcomes of macroscopic events can be affected by observation. This is because macroscopic objects are composed of microscopic particles acting as either waves or particles (Lejuwaan, 2010). These facts lead to the emergence of De Broglie equation as shown in (1.1) and (1.2) (1.1) (1.2) Where is the wavelength, is Plancks constant, is the frequency, and E is the total energy of the particle (Phillips, 2003). The equations (1.1) and (1.2) are equivalently equal to (1.3) (1.4) Where is the modified PlanckÃ¢â¬â¢s constant (), k is the angular wave number (and is the angular frequency ( (Phillips, 2003). The comparison between planets in a solar system and electrons in an atom was no longer reasonable. De BroglieÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis led to the development of quantum mechanics and subsequently the SchrÃ ¶dinger equation. It is important to know the equations (1.1) and (1.2) to understand the concept of the SchrÃ ¶dinger equation that will be discussed in the next section. 2. The SchrÃ ¶dinger wave equation Quantum mechanics is all about solving the SchrÃ ¶dinger equation. There are many SchrÃ ¶dinger equations, each physical scenario for which you want to apply. Quantum mechanics has its own SchrÃ ¶dinger equation, they are all slightly different and all require slightly different solution techniques. The reason why there are many different SchrÃ ¶dinger equations is that the situation over under which you want to solve the SchrÃ ¶dinger equation enters the SchrÃ ¶dinger equation as a potential function and we know that potential function influence the physics of quantum mechanics. The SchrÃ ¶dinger equation is a wave equation that describes the behavior of particles by taking account the fact that matter also has these wave-like properties. Ã¢â¬Å"The role of the SchrÃ ¶dinger equation in quantum mechanics is analogous to that of NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Laws in classical mechanics. Both describe motion. NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Second Law is a differential equation which describes how a classical particle moves, whereas the SchrÃ ¶dinger equation is a partial differential equation which describes how the wave function representing a quantum particle ebbs and flows. In addition, both were postulated and then tested by experimentÃ¢â¬ (Phillips, 2003). The SchrÃ ¶dinger wave equation helped in the emergence of quantum mechanics and Erwin SchrÃ ¶dinger was the reason of establishing an equation that considered as one of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics (Freiberger, 2012). There are two forms of the Schrodinger equation, the first form is time dependent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation and the second form is time independent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation (The Schrodinger Wave Equation, n.d.). 2.1 Time dependent SchrÃ ¶dinger wave equation: (1.5) Where is the imaginary unit, is the modified PlanckÃ¢â¬â¢s constant (), indicates a partial derivative with respect to time t, is the wave function of the quantum system, and is the Hamiltonian operator (Wikipedia, 2014). (1.6) Where m is the mass of particle, V is the potential energy and is the Laplacian. The equation (1.5) is the general equation, while the equation (1.6) is the Ã¢â¬Å"single non-relativistic particleÃ¢â¬ of the time dependent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation. By solving time dependent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation, we can determine the probability of detection of particle in some region as a function of time (Phillips, 2003). 2.2 Time independent SchrÃ ¶dinger wave equation: Time independent Schrodinger equation is used more than time dependent Schrodinger equation, because the time is measured on a small scale. Ã¢â¬Å"The time-independent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation predicts that wave functions can form standing waves, called stationary statesÃ¢â¬ (Wikipedia, 2014). The time independent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation has another important use that is making the time dependent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation to be solved easily once the stationary states are predicated by the time independent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation (Phillips, 2003). EÃË (1.7) (1.8) The equation (1.7) is the general equation, while the equation (1.8) is the Ã¢â¬Å"single non-relativistic particleÃ¢â¬ of time independent SchrÃ ¶dinger equation. 3. The Role of Quantum Mechanics in Structure-Based Drug Design Most drugs are very small molecules compered to their targets that are enzymes. In order for drugs to take its effect it has to bind to the active site of the enzyme. We can think about this as an engine that has moving parts that moving, and a little drug get stuck in the gears of the engine and hence the entire engine stopped working. This is how drugs are working. In order to design drug pharmaceuticals must know much information about the active site of the enzyme; it will help them a lot if they have a very high-resolution structure so they can know the active site of the enzyme. There are important enzymes whose structure is strange such as catalase which shown in figure (1.9) and it will be easier to design drugs if the structure of the active site is known (Kalyaanamoorthy and Chen, 2011). Over many decades, specialists used the high technological abilities to displace the hard obstructions that they faced along the path of drug discovery. This allowed them to improve the methods of drug design (Kalyaanamoorthy and Chen, 2011). There were many computational approaches that used at different stages of drug design process. These computational approaches were successful in decreasing the number of ligands (Ã¢â¬Å"a molecule such as drug that binds to receptorÃ¢â¬ (Dictionary.com, 2014).) In addition, in form the computational approaches helped in reducing the period and costs of drug discovery. The computational approach that we will discuss about is the structure-based drug design (SBDD). It is a method that depends on 3-D structures of biological targets. SBDD has two phases; hit identification and lead identification. The first phase is about exhibiting powerfulness against the target by the recognition of chemical compounds called Ã¢â¬Å"hitsÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Whereas, the latter engages evaluation of the screened hits to identify the promising lead molecules before proceeding toward a large-scale lead optimizationÃ¢â¬ (Kalyaanamoorthy and Chen, 2011). On of the most successful examples of the history of SBDD is the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteinase inhibitor (Meyer and Swanson et al., n.p.). 3.1 Target Identification Identifying the right target is only the first stage of a long process. Scientists need to find a protein or gene that is associated with the disease (Kalyaanamoorthy and Chen, 2011). Proteins come from genes, and it is easier to study genes than to study proteins. One approach to find a new drug target, involves comparing the genes of healthy individuals with those of people with the disease. The differences between two genetics maps can help to generate hypotheses in which proteins or lack of thereof cause the disease. It is also possible to do the opposite, by changing one gene at a time in cells or simple organisms, and then observing the resulting effects that will happen, so it called the phenotype of the mutation. If the phenotype has some similarity with the diseaseÃ¢â¬â¢s states, it can give ideas about the possible relation between the mutated gene and the disease. The third approach of target identification is to start already with a bioactive substance such as a natural medicine used in traditional medicine, a compound from basic research or known drugs with unexpected effects (Kalyaanamoorthy and Chen, 2011). When targets are identified they, another process occurs which called drug validation. Drug validation is on of the most important steps in SBDD; many drugs that failed were because it was not checked by Ã¢â¬Å"drug validation processÃ¢â¬ (Hughes and Rees et al., 2011). When the target and the active site have been identified then the hit discovery process starts. One of the successful validation tools is the transgenic animal (animals that carry foreign genes) as they allow observing the phenotypic endpoints (Hughes and Rees et al., 2011). 3.2 Hit Identification When the targets are discovered and being checked for target validation, the next step is hit identification. Hit identification is about getting a small molecule that has some of the initial properties that pharmaceuticals want in their final drugs. It is very early in the process of a drug discovery. The Ã¢â¬Å"hitÃ¢â¬ is defined as a molecule that binds to the target. There are some ways that used to determine identify the hit. One way is to start with a natural substrate and to make it drug-like. The second way is to design a De novo hit by SBDD. This way works if pharmaceuticals are familiar with the binding site as well as the protein structure. High throughput screening (HTS) is a process that aims to find inhibitors for the targets by using rapid assays. With HTS there is no need to be familiar with the nature of chemotype likely to have activity at the target protein (Hughes and Rees et al., 2011). HTS is considered as one of the main processes for hit identification (Hug hes and Rees et al., 2011). The disadvantage of HTS is that it requires a lot of materials and time to do a huge combinatorial space (high cost) (Hughes and Rees et al., 2011). When starting with HTS pharmaceuticals need to screen a lot of molecules to find a drug. HTS screens more than hundred thousand to million compounds or even more than a million compounds (Hughes and Rees et al., 2011). Most of the molecules will not be active against the Ã¢â¬Å"biologyÃ¢â¬ , while a large number of molecules will be active against the Ã¢â¬Å"biologyÃ¢â¬ and the process keeps going until there is only one molecule that is active against the Ã¢â¬Å"biologyÃ¢â¬ 3.3 Hit to Lead Phase Ã¢â¬Å"Hit to leadÃ¢â¬ phase is an elevated level of SBDD phases. It helps pharmaceuticals to get closer to a drug that is safe and efficacious in people because it helps to identify compounds with improved potency (Hughes and Rees et al., 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"A lead compound is a compound that demonstrate a desired a biological activity on a validated molecular targetÃ¢â¬ (Pharmacelsus GmbH, 2013). The key thing about the hit to lead phase is to identify compounds that is not only binds to the protein, but they in fact work inside a cell, and they show the selectivity in a cell (Hughes and Rees et al., 2011). The key aspect of hit to lead stage is a repeated process in which it not only shows that the compound works in a biochemical assay, but it also demonstrate that it works effectively and selectively in a cell-based assay (Hughes and Rees et al., 2011). Therefore, it can go through the cell membrane, reach the target inside the cell, and engage that protein in a cell-based assay. In starting the hit to lead phase, the compounds start off with potencies that are weaker than pharmaceuticals would like. What pharmaceuticals looking for is compounds that will make the medicinal chemistry that will improve the potency of the hit compound at least a factor of ten, and ideally a factor of twenty in the biochemical assay (Kalyaanamoorthy and Chen, 2011). Also, pharmaceuticals look for things to start off with from the hit stage that have weak cellular potency, but with medicinal chemistry that correlates with the biochemical potency mentioned above (Kalyaanamoorthy and Chen, 2011). Furthermore, it drives the cellular potency to be more potent in the cell. This is all toward the goal that pharmaceuticals want to get potent compounds that are cell active. Also, there are several other important properties such that, if Pharmaceuticals do not want the compound to bond to other off-target that may cause toxicity then they prefer compound to have potency that at least ten-fold weaker to the closest related target. We will not discuss in detail. Knowing the active site is a very important thing in drug designing, there are several ways that used to determine the active site for unknown drugs active sites. 4. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is considered as one of the earliest approaches to drug design. This approach is all about finding a relationship between how active the compound is as a drug and the physical activities of the compound. The fundamental principle of QSAR is that the change in structural properties of the compound can lead to a change in the biological activities of the compound. QSAR allowed us to determine where approximately the drug settles in the human body. This is determined by a physical property that used which called the distribution coefficients between octanol and water (is the ratio between the concentration of a compound in the mixture). Ã¢â¬Å"QSAR depends on bulk properties of the potential drug moleculesÃ¢â¬ (Moore, 2002). A new method is emerged, it is called 3D-QSAR, 3D-QSAR is considered to be an effective tool in the design of pharmaceuticals drugs that helps to connect the activity of a molecule with the properties that d epends on a special part of the molecular structure. We superimpose by a computer a set of molecules that we know their activities. By this method, the set of molecules with similar groups will be in the same place. Furthermore, a small box is drowned that divided into lattice of n points along each side and 200pm apart from each other (Moore, 2002). The box contains all the molecules. A box containing one molecule is shown in figure 2.0 5.1 QM/MM studies of pharmaceutically relevant targets In this section we will discuss about an experiment that Alessio and Marco (2012) did to show that QM/MM could predict the binding orientation of a reference inhibitor. The experiment is all about the interaction of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and carbamic acid aryl ester inhibitors (URB524) (Lodola and De Vivo, 2012, pp. 337-362). Ã¢â¬Å"In general, SBDD depends on the accuracy of ligand docking, and the ability to identify binding modesÃ¢â¬ (Lodola and De Vivo, 2012, pp. 337-362). When FAHH is docked with URB524 inhibitors, there are two possible of this docking. Tools that applied in drug discovery were not able to distinguish between the two binding orientations. On the other hand, when QM/MM was used to model the inhibitor binding process, it made such a good success in revealing that (Lodola and De Vivo, 2012, pp. 337-362). QM/MM calculations showed that, the second orientation was energetically preferred. This QM/MM calculationÃ¢â¬â¢s suggested that the notably higher barrier in the first orientation led to an unstable product. (Lodola and De Vivo, 2012, pp. 337-362). By QM/MM we can gain a detailed understanding of the binding site interactions, and hence QM/MM can contribute practically to drugs design. On the other hand, although QM/MM gives a detailed understanding of the binding site interactions, QM/MM has not yet played an important role in drug designing. Due to the high computational abilities that QM/MM has, it looks like that QM/MM will be a main and an indispensable tool in drug design in the recent years.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Principles Behind Project Management Systems and Procedures The beginning of project management is in the construction business, resulted as pyramids. A king contracted for the construction of his own relaxing home, given to a project manager. This manager was accountable for the rational development of the physical structure, with cutting and carriage of stone, organising of workforce, and construction of the pyramid as planned by the emperor. Modern building organizations hire an updated model of project management, using graphical tools and software to help achieve the sequencing of resources distribution, paraphernalia procedure, and industry knowledge. Usually one organization has several projects underneath at a specified time, confounding the requirement for particular scheduling of resource accessibility to complete each assignment successfully and proficiently. A number of experts have acknowledged a resemblance to construction firms in operative style. For example, legitimate and public bookkeeping companies, while not necessitating brace beams or earth-moving tools, have various legal cases or specialized checks in progress instantaneously. For these corporations, it is required to assign the accessibility of specialized consultants. Principles of project Management Project management principles are most often well-read from practise, and they have world-wide validity for all ventures. This is individuals own perception how he/she could be able to implement those. It is an important matter. Principle Based Project Management begins with these principles: Rule 1- Keep in mind which type of professional you are going to do. Is this business feasible? Choose projects that are worthy for your business. Recognise the commercial worth in your project and keep an eye for fluctuations. Be conscientious in your selected business, learning and put on finest practices. Define what is exclusive and exterior your capacity of concern. Rule 2 Comprehend the clients requirements and sort them. Carefully apprehend and file the customers necessities, get client contract in inscription, and put requirements documents under version identification and change control. Requirements management is the important success aspect for systems development projects. Rule 3 Design a sensible plan. Design a plan that outlines the possibility, agenda, budget, and methodology for a practical project. Include job owners in emerging plans and appraisals, to guarantee viability and buy-in Rule 4 Construct a worthy squad with clear rights. Acquire noble persons and have faith. Create strong possession of well-defined responsibilities; confirm they have tools and preparation needed; and deliver well-timed response. Track beside an operating plan. Give emphasis to open communications. Construct an atmosphere in which team forces at work can gel. Move oddities out. Lead the squad. Rule 5 Keep an eye on project prominence and give it widespread distinguishability. Track development and have repeated evaluations. Deliver inclusive perceptibility and communications of players improvement, expectations, and concerns. Conduct systematic evaluations of management and practical areas to support manage customer anticipations, progress excellence, and recognise complications before they get out of hand. Rule 6 Use Starting point Controls. Inaugurate reference point for the artefact using configuration management and for the plan using budget and schedule reference line tracing. Manage variations purposefully. Practise measurements to standard problematic extents and then track growth quantitatively on the way to elucidations. Rule 7 Put pen to paper Significant Matter, Share it, and Save it. File requirements, strategies, actions, and progressing projects. Keep a record thoughts permit them to grow and improve. Deprived of citations it is difficult to have baseline controls, consistent communications, or a repeatable method. Record all significant pacts and conclusions, along with supportive rationale, as they may come up well ahead. Rule 8 A good test plan should be there. Cultivate test cases for validations and verifications. Use pilot tests to attest critical items and decrease technical menaces. Rule 9 Guarantee consumer contentment. Keep the customers real needs and requirements continuously in view. Invisible changes in buyer requests or not concentrating the project on the customers trade requirements are definite routes to project disaster. Make a clear plan for Clients requirement satisfaction. Rule 10 Proactive approach should be there. Dont wait for damage, have each and every backup in advance in the view of disaster. Project problems worsen over time. Sporadically address project menaces and confront them cooperatively. Appraise the viability of projects and develop success/failure criteria Project viability can be checked by keeping in mind following criteria: a) Scope of the study: Basically before taking any project the scope of the project and the degree should be evidently predicted out based on the requirement of the project. Henceforth deprived of a clear visualisation of the project objective it is difficult to make a fruitful project. All the source desired for the project should be accessible in the report undoubtedly, planned accomplishment date etc. (b) Procurement of data for the studies: Nevertheless the asset and production expenses should be projected as accurately as possible, the budgets and period involved in procurement of the data are not always accurate and it therefore occasionally it is essential for the project team to have faith in suppositions. (c) Verification of alternatives and assumptions: When numerous substitutions are being delivered with concerning choice of equipment , capability, financing etc. In datum the nitty-gritties will be robust when the following substitutions are provided along with the particulars of the project outline: 1. Planned cost structure. 2. Work plans. 3. Exchange mechanism. 4. Landmark elements. (d) Planned cost structure: The expenditure for the project deliverables are always in expressions of prices, regardless of the nature of the produce such as study prices, work expenses, overhead cost etc. Consequently it would be idyllic to brand all the essential expenses experienced throughout the project execution, which justifies to be treated as cost. The manufacture cost depends on accessibility of the data about the vital capitals, manpower, effort agenda, type of equipment, accessible means, and dissemination prices, expertise of the employment. (e) Setting up the operations: Limit the accomplishment of the project is also a significant feature in project viability study. New practices such as PERT, GERT, CPM, ZBB etc are used for operational time management, in demand to be accurate in their close date. (f) Project team: It is desirable to formulate the report beneath the administration of specialists since they are mindful time restraints, assets, and source requirement for the project. To conduct a viability study the idyllic team associates would encompass. 1. Industry economist. 2. Market specialist. 3. Management professionals. 4. Technical head. 5. Project Supervisor. (g) Project meant for extension: Viability studies for a fresh project might be somewhat dissimilar from previously standing projects whose attention is to enlarge their measure of action and the scope of coverage. Depending upon the scope of the project, it should be evident from the new scheme whether the current interior organizational structure and supportive amenities will be adequate or need some alterations. (h) Cost studies: Scheming of pre-investment expenses differs from project to project. Since expenses are essential factors of several types of pre-investment readings it is desirable to specify the size of the expense. c) Developing success/failure criteria of a project Essentially, the project demonstrations exhibited success itself is problematic to outline. In a archetypal group of shareholders-i.e., the project leader, team associates, merchandise end workers, project promoter and top administration-a projects success might, at any given instant, obtain very dissimilar assessments. Given this certainty, it turns into clear that an estimation of project accomplishment should comprise both procedure and result principles. They used the following practice-related measures: Time: Did the project come in on planned time? Cost: Did the project derive in according to financial plan? Product: Did the project result in a produce of suitable worth and encounter other goods -related stipulations? The three outcome-related criteria they used were: Use: Were the projects consequential products/amenities used by its envisioned elements? Learning: Did the project intensify interested party knowledge and enhanced formulation the organization for forthcoming challenges? Value: Did the project lead straight to the organizations better-quality competence or efficacy? Common metrics comprise internal rate of return (IRR),, , economic value added (EVA) ,net present value (NPV) and the composed record. References: http://www.performancexpress.org/ Understand the principles behind project management systems and procedures. Principles behind project management systems and procedures are recognized for the following requirement to fulfil; Meet the clients expectancy Meet project time limit and liability Bring about project revenue margins Well-organized resource utilization Accomplish facts for quicker decision making Confirming limited resources are used on the right plans Binding the dynamism of work in attaining advantageous modification Supervising multifarious variations in an planned way Measuring risks, describing goals and key success parts and setting excellence objectives. Identify the key elements involved in terminating projects and conducting post project appraisals Essential Key Elements are: Assure that all payments have been collected from the customer Assure that all payments for materials and subcontractors have been paid Prepare a written performance evaluation of each member of the project team Hold post-project evaluation meetings commemorate Have individual meetings with team members and a group meeting with the project team Hold soon after the finishing point declare meeting in advance so people can be equipped Individual meetings allow team members to give their individual impersonation Develop an plan for a group meeting Group meeting should talk about performance and recommendation for enhancement Issue a brief written report to management with a summing up and recommendations Some topics that might be discussed: procedural performance cost performance schedule performance project planning and control customer relationships group relationships communications problem recognition and resolution 2. Examine project organisation and people. Identify the most appropriate organisational structure, roles and responsibilities of participants within a project Prosperous organisations are those that: Have people of visualization and champs of transformation to lead them; Expose the potential of their staff. This is done by generating principles of sincere empowerment of staff to emphasis on the customer. They also motivate good communication, collaboration and preparation. They roll out any ranked pyramids. Identify their clienteles persistently learning from others and going up to the confronts retained by demanding clients. This leads to improvement and keenness. Produce new and fruitful merchandises or amenities by a good knowledge of contestants, inspiring improvement to achieve new ideas. Emphasis on the essential business, accompanied by tactical coalitions. Go beyond their customers expectancies. A virtuous enterprise will admire its individuals as a key resource, not a financial rate. It is a mark of noble administration that all workforces are authorised to appreciate their potential, and profit from working out to ensure so. Managements of all organisations have four core tasks they require to device: Fabrication to make the merchandises or amenities; Transactions and advertising to get the artefact sold; Human resources (employees to you) to employ and train employees; Investment to remunerate for the undertakings. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The roles and responsibilities of project contributors will vary. The necessities positioned on participants will be resolute and demarcated during the project planning process phase,following points can be considered: On a large project, individual role projects may need full-time consideration to the task. On smaller projects, role duties may be completed part-time, with staff distribution in the implementation of several utilities. Tasking and specific responsibilities are generally overlapped in the Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) as activity projects are defined during the scheduling phase. Typically these duties are shorter term and present only to the attainment of the action distribution. The Project Team and Shareholders A project team includes a varied combination of people and qualities who exchanging the responsibility for achieving plan goals. Shareholders on every project include: Organizational Management, who outlines business requirements, objectives and purposes of the project as well as describing the guidelines and measures leading the project,. The Project Manager, who has final accountability for project accomplishment The Project Team members, who are answerable for holding the performance of the project work actions. These could comprise: Project management human resources Business development human resources Subject Matter Experts (SME) Documentation (user and practical) human resources Training human resources Technical human resources Information Security Officer Leaders/decision makers The Project Supporter, who frontrunners in receiving the need for the project documented as well as in case funding, permitting the means enlistment, and confirming the sanctuary of IT applications. The Purchaser, who is the individual(s) or association(s) using the merchandise of the project and who regulates the approval criteria for the product. Organizational Management Organizational Management is accountable for the identification of the need and occasion for a project, valuation of project risk, and the endorsement of the projects viability and capitals. Management Roles and Responsibilities General Functions Provide leadership and possessions to establish and advance project management Ensure that enough resources are available to conduct projects Analysis/support promises to external individuals (e.g., customers, vendors) Ensure staff is appropriately qualified in project management practices and principles Project Commencement Select Project Manager and contribution in project team recruitment Review/authenticate/admire project scheduler Authorize and provide financial support Project Planning Authenticate that project goals and objectives are defined Review/approve project plan, cost, risk and establish management capitals Provide management inaccuracy as established by review of the project risk analysis, risk reaction planning and mission plan Allow project staff accessibility Project Implementation Repeatedly conduct administrative management reviews and provide your ideas Project Control Review project status and corrective action plans (if required) Review/Approve changes upsetting scope, timing, cost, and/or quality, as essential Project Close-out Authenticate project accomplishment (goals objectives) Substantiate customer and sponsor reception Review and close plan accounting/financial records Review project instructions knowledgeable and post project reports for constant enhancement accomplishment Project Sponsor / Business Sponsor The Project Sponsor is typically a member of the management squad who will be the receiver of the projects end consequence (the product). The Project Sponsor is usually the head of a program region. This specific makes the business argument for the project to exist, controls the overall funding of the project and outlines the receipt criteria of the produce. Many organizations have commands such as Information Technology Security Certification and Authorization which recognizes security related tasks for the System Proprietor. Sponsor Roles and Responsibilities General Functions Eloquent project and/or customer necessities Authenticate that project requirements are met Provide the necessary finance and resources as correct Titleholder the project to provide acquaintance and buy-in Communicate the sponsors views on project growth and success influences to the project team and other shareholders Project Commencement Provide the deliberate goals and objectives of the recipient organization and guidance to the project team to identify the significance and value of the project Develop project idea document Describe sponsor and organizations needs Acquire or provides capital for the project Document necessities Project Planning Review and approve the Project Management Plan and management attitude Participate in planning conferences Project Accomplishment Attend decision-making requirement appraisals Decide intensified project requests-issues, removes barricades and difficulties to the project Deliver transcribed agreement to project requirements and meet the requirements Project Control Appear and contribute as required at Project Status Reviews and piloting meetings Show up change control meetings and appraisals and supports change in scope, timing, quality and/or cost as compressed Project Close-out Provide demonstration or input to lessons learned reviews Sign off on project accomplishment. Control and co-ordinate a project Project coordination is planning and managing several responsibilities at the same time. Coordination is indispensable for a industry that deals with two or more linked plans. Projects differ based on commercial goals but may comprise initiation a new produce or growing facilities into new zones. A project coordinator commonly has diverse roles and accountabilities, dependent on the business, business scope, and mission objective. Project coordinators can function as decision makers or subordinate to lead managers. Project control cycle Recognize the purposes and restrictions, and cultivate a plan. Analyse and baseline the proposal. Acquire agreement to proceed. Do some effort. Measure performance and bring up-to-date the original estimations and predictions. Bring up to date the plan and financial plan predictions to have explanation of the state-of-the-art statistics. Explore the reasons of any momentous deviations with detail to the baseline. Analyse the related jeopardies and expectations. If compulsory, improve opportunities for captivating counteractive action. Settle on any remedial plan that is mandatory and appraise the plans . Approve that the goals have been accomplished and that the prerequisite merchandises have been distributed. Acquire official sign-off if applicable. Figure: Project control cycle Identify project leadership requirements and qualities. In a team building, populaces are encouraged to provide thoughts and useful conclusions. This transformation rules how plans in the present day are being fulfilled. Moved out is the old-fashioned system of running ventures where the person above you made the judgments, assumed the timeframes, and fix all goals. Today, we must have additional players who will take the compulsory guidance and move the project onward. This turn out to be a struggle with anticipations and values. It is a fact project management is here to stay. Shape the Accurate Crew: Several project players practice turf encounters. Persons dispute and are unhelpful; they do not cooperate. Non-cooperation leads to project breakdown .most people are capable to overcome their personal aversions and silently effort together. Nevertheless, the squad leader is accountable for holding unsolved project planning. By cautiously choosing the crew participants in the opening, several types of these difficulties can be escaped. Explain Something in Great Detail for Your Team Upfront: It all the time works well to convey people the reality. By illuminating the penetration of the venture and how considerable time you expect it will yield for accomplishment will construct your reliability. Generate the right grounds by clarifying the course for conducting difficulties, adjust commands, and projects. By providing the facts up front, you set a gist of admiration and gentility. Craft an Atmosphere of Reliance: You should create reliability and walk the tÃ ªte-Ã -tÃ ªte regularly. Give people respect. People who are treated badly will not likely be helpful and supportive. Elude and depress dishonesties and backstabbing. These eradicate reliance and give the base for rejection of leadership. Individuals can handle mistakes or catastrophe, but they cannot handle deceptions and lack of respect. Observe and Provide Opinion: Providing appropriate reaction on the pros and cons of a project is very significant. Never take too lightly the worth of a literal on the rear with a good job supplement. If you ponder individuals are performing well, express them. In some cases, leaders applause individuals at the commencement of the project but fail to recall to comprise reaction over the comprehensive time of the project. Reminisce, admiration expenses nothing. Point out optimistic actions with observations. These positive shorings up supports retain people attentive on the right way. Keep Communication Vulnerable: Keep communications rolling; it helps the efficiency and proficiency of the venture. Circumvent one way communiquÃ © which is only from first management downward. Communication is required which crosses division lines and retains everyone well-versed and on board. Keep the End Goal Clearly in Mind: Leaders can turn out to be side-tracked and overlook the necessity for checking the project dates. People may lose attention for the duration of a project and permit goals to float. If the overlooked time limit is early on in the project, it can have an undulate effect. Plan and specify human resources and requirements for a project Planning of Human resources seeks to place the right employees in the right jobs at the right time, so that an organisation can meet its objectives. Human resource planning tries to forecast personnel demand, assess supply and reconcile the two in a systematic manner. When developing HR plans, it is important for managers to scan the external environment to identify the effects of economic conditions, regional and competitive pressures, governmental influences and workforce composition and patterns. Planning the requirement for Human Resources for a project Most firms estimate how many employees they require in future. The demand for human talent at various levels is primarily due to the following factors: 1. External challenges: These challenges arise from three important sources: (a) Economic developments: Opening up of banking sector, capital market reforms, the on-line trading systems have created huge requirement for finance professionals . (b) Political, legal, social and technical changes: The requirement for certain categories of employees and skills is also influenced by changes in political, legal and social structure in an economy. (c) Competition: Companies operating in fields where a large number of players are bent upon cutting each others throat (with a view to enhance their market shares) often reduce their workforce. Competition is beneficial to customers but suicidal for companies operating on thin margins. 2. Organisational decisions: The organisations strategic plan, sales and production forecasts and new ventures must all be taken into account in employment planning. 3. Workforce factors: Requirement is modified by retirements, terminations, resignations, deaths and leaves of absence. Past experience, however, makes the rate of occurrence of these actions by employees fairly predictable. 4. Forecasting techniques: The manpower forecasting techniques commonly employed by modern organisations are given below: (a) Expert forecasts: In this method, managers estimate future human resource requirements, using their experiences and judgements to good effect. (b) Trend analysis: HR needs can be estimated by examining past trends. Past rates of change can be projected into the future or employment growth can be estimated by its relationship with a particular index. 5. Other methods: Several mathematical models, with the aid of computers are also used to forecast HR needs, e.g., regression, optimisation models, budget and planning analysis. Examine project processes and procedures Develop project plans and the project organisation Planning is the key to successful project. When we thought of a project we need to make project plan. Step 1 Project Goals: A project is successful when the the requirements of the investors are done. A investor is one directly or indirectly affected by the project. As a main step it is vital to recognize the shareholders in your project. Examples of stakeholders are: The project guarantor The client who take delivery of the services The operators of the project yields The project manager and project team The next step once you have piloted all the conversations and have a all-inclusive list of requirements is to give priorities to them. From the this list generate a customary of objectives that can be easily measured. This way it will be easy to know when a objective has been accomplished. Once you have recognized a clear set of goals they should be chronicled in the project plan. It can be beneficial to also comprise the needs and opportunities of your shareholders. Step 2 Project Deliverables: Supplement the deliverables to the project plan with an predictable delivery date. Further exact delivery dates will be established during the development phase. Step 3 Project Schedule: Build a list of responsibilities that must be voted for out for each deliverable acknowledged in step 2. For every task ascertain the following: The amount of effort (hours or days) required to do the task The resource who will bring out the task After finding out the amount of work for each task, you can work out the effort mandatory for each deliverable and an accurate delivery date. Update your deliverables division with the more precise distribution dates. Step 4 Supporting Plans This step deals with plans you must create as quantity of the planning process. These can be comprised openly in the plan. Human Resource Plan Classify by name the persons and associations with a important role in the project. For each one designate their roles and tasks on the project. Next, designate the number and kind of people necessary to carry out the project. For each means feature start dates, assessed time and the technique you will use for tracking down them. Craft a single sheet encompassing this statistics. Communications Plan Design a document displaying who wishes to be kept informed about the mission and how they will collect the facts. The most corporate mechanism is a weekly/once-a-month development report, telling how the project is performing, landmarks attained and work scheduled for the next period. Risk Management Plan Risk management is an imperative portion of project management. Though often unnoticed, it is significant to recognize as numerous menaces to your venture as probable and be organized if something badly takes place. Some examples of mutual project risks: Time and cost approximations too enthusiastic Customer analysis and opinion phase too slow Unanticipated economical cuts Unclear roles and accountabilities Shareholder input is not required or their needs are not correctly assumed Shareholders varying necessities after the project has on track Shareholders adding new necessities after the project has underway Bad communication ensuing in misinterpretations, quality problems and modify Deficiency of resource assurance Apply project scheduling, estimating and cost control techniques Project Scheduling helps you do the following: They deliver a foundation for you to monitor and control project undertakings. They assist you regulate how best to distribute resources so you can attain the project objective. They support you evaluate how time postponements will influence the project. You can figure out where additional resources are obtainable to assign to other projects. They deliver a root to support you track project development. Cost Estimating Resources for which expenses are estimated include infrastructure, employment, equipment, components, etc. and special class like rise or emergency. If the performing organization does not have properly skilled project cost estimators,after that project team must require to contribute both the possessions and the proficiency to carry out project cost estimating actions. Analogous Estimating Analogous cost estimating means using the real cost of previous or similar projects as the base for estimating the cost of the existing project. Analogous cost estimating This technique is used when there is a inadequate amount of comprehensive information about the project. It uses professional judgment, is less costly and is less precise but cons