Saturday, September 21, 2019

Hinduism Paper Essay Example for Free

Hinduism Paper Essay Hinduism as coined by European influence, is the world’s third largest religion with nearly one billion followers, about 14% of the Earths human population. There are many that theorize Hinduism is not like any other religion that encompasses a particular way of life; that Hinduism is without a defined founder, deity, nor is Hinduism stuck to a specific system of theology. However, there are those that argue Hinduism is monotheistic because it does recognize the one supreme being of Brahman. Then some view Hinduism as Trinitarian because Brahman is visualized as one God with the three persons of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Considering that Hinduism lacks a united belief system is a matter of scholarly theory based on the closest findings and perhaps the reason many people theorize that Hinduism is undefined religion. The makeup of Hinduism is of diverse beliefs and traditions of the 81% of Hindus residing in present day India translated from Vedic scripture that some scholars say date back to 10,000 BCE. The basic scriptures of Hinduism, referred as Shastras, are a collection of spiritual laws discovered by sages at different points in history. The Two types of sacred writings, Shruti (heard) and Smriti (memorized) comprise the Hindu scriptures. The sacred writings were passed on from generation to generation orally for centuries before they were written down in the Sanskrit language dating far back as 6,500 BC. The major and most popular Hindu texts include the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads, and the epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata, but there are fundamental core of beliefs shared by all Hindus. The basic core of Hinduism believes that there is only one supreme Absolute called Brahman, although it does not advocate the worship of any one particular deity. The gods and goddesses of Hinduism can amount to millions, all representing the many aspects of Brahman that indicate Hinduism is characterized by multiple deities. The most fundamental of Hindu deities is the Trinity of Brahma (creator), Vishnu (or Krishna, meaning creator) and Shiva (destroyer). Yet, the supreme God of any sub-God or sub-Goddesses is that of Brahma, a monotheistic approach that can be compared with many carnations to God in the Christian Bible such as Moses, Abraham, and Jesus and perhaps ignites much debate on the type of religion Hinduism is. However, there are other basic cores of beliefs that Hindus share. Amongst the core beliefs shared by Hindus is the desire for liberation from earthly existence in which Dharma, Samsara, Karma, and Moksha are facets in reaching liberation. Dharma encompasses ethics and duty within a Hindu’s life. Karma is the actions with in one’s life and the consequences for those actions. When Karma goes unfulfilled, Samsara is experienced through the cycle of life, death, and rebirth. The rebirth cycle is also known as reincarnation where a Hindu’s uncleansed soul cycles through life after life until the soul is cleansed enough to be with Brahman. While stuck in Samsara, the individual then becomes limited within time and space where monotony becomes a desire for escape from such misery. When a Hindu’s soul is cleansed enough to satisfy Brahman, Moksha is that escape from such earthly miseries. The desire for Moksha transformed Hinduism from a religion into a culture, but there is debate as to the cultural and societal influences that have made Hinduism vital to India. The cultural and societal influences of Hinduism is in a state of constant flow with the never ending possibilities as life on the earthly plane continues to flourish, yet there is debate on the historical significance that makes a Hinduism what it is today. The Aryan theory argues that Hinduism traces back to the Indus valley civilization of 4,000-2,200 BCE and was influenced by many Aryan Indo-European tribes who brought with them the religion of Vedism around 1,500 BCE. The Emerge theory challenges the Aryan invasion theory in stating the inconsistencies in timelines of Hebrew Scriptures and that of the Aryan invasion in comparison to the development of the four Veda that can be traced as far back as 6,500 BCE. Archeologists and religious historian have concluded through physical evidence of archeological finds along the Indus River and Indus valley show a continuality of the same group of people who traditionally developed Indian culture generation after generation with no evidence of Aryan influence. Another debate that continues amongst the modern day quarrel over theory is the caste system that dates back to 500 BCE. The Rig Veda defined four castes, or Varna’s; Brahmins were for religious leaders and educators, Kshatriyas for rulers and military, Vaishyas for farmers, landlords, and merchants, and Shudra for peasants, servants and workers. A fifth Varna was known as untouchables and anyone castigated from the Varna’s were the Dalit who were denigrated to pollutant jobs. According to Religioustolerance. org (2011), â€Å"although the caste system was abolished in 1949, it remains a significant force amongst Hindus throughout India. Aside from debate are the cultural rituals of the Hindu. According Living Religions by Mary Pat Fisher (2005), â€Å"there are sixteen rites prescribed in the ancient scriptures to purify and sanctify the person in his or her journey through life, including rites at the time of conception, the braiding of the pregnant mother’s hair, birth, name-giving, beginning of solid foods, starting education, investing boys with a sacred thread, first leaving the family house, starting studies of Vedas, marriage, and death. Sanatana Dharma is the current preferred title of what is better known as Hinduism where respect of one of the world’s oldest religions must be observed. The fact that there are many worshipped idols within Sanatana Dharma confuses the masses who contend that Hinduism is a polytheistic religion. Yet, it is the world overlooking the fact that other religions practice in denominations sectored by a difference of beliefs within the same core of beliefs.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Netspeak Is Something Completely New English Language Essay

Netspeak Is Something Completely New English Language Essay In this essay, I will briefly identify the key features of Netspeak outlined by Crystal and subsequently attempt to evaluate his assertion that Netspeak can be classed as a fourth medium. In his book, Language and the Internet, Crystal states, Netspeak relies on characteristic belonging to both sides of the speech/writing divide I aim to decide whether this is the case or whether it is simply an aggregate of written and spoken characteristics. To begin his analysis, Crystal first establishes the key differences between written and spoken language and the criteria for each; he then applied each to Netspeak with reference to different areas of the internet. Table 1 illustrates the application of spoken language, with Table 2 doing the same for written. Table 1: Spoken language criteria applied to Netspeak (Crystal, 2006, p. 45) Web Blogging e-mail Chatgroups Virtual worlds Instant messaging Time-bound No No Yes, but differently Yes, but differently Yes, but differently Yes Spontaneous No Yes, but restricted Variable Yes, but restricted Yes, but restricted Yes Face-to-face No No No No No No, unless camera used Loosely structured Variable Yes Variable Yes Yes Yes Socially interactive No, with increasing options No, with increasing options Variable Yes, but restricted Yes, but restricted yes Immediately revisable No No No No No No Prosodically rich No No No No No No A key point in favour of Crystals argument is the lack of likeness to spoken language, however some features of spoken language is present for example, short constructions, phrasal repetition and looser sentence construction (Crystal, 2006). Nevertheless, there are crucial differences, including the absence of kinesics and proxemics that are essential for expressing personal opinions and attitudes in spoken language, as well as moderating social relationships to avoid disambiguation. Smileys or emoticons are used, particularly on social media sites, chat groups and in online messaging, in an attempt to replace these language features as without the common courtesies of spoken language, online messages may well be construed as impolite or offensive. However, the semantic role of emoticons are limited and can lead to misunderstanding themselves (Crystal, 2006), especially as they often appear in different formats. Further attempts have been made to replace paralinguistic features in instant messaging or on social media sites like Twitter and Facebook. Exaggerated use of spelling and punctuation, capitals and repeated letters and/or punctuation marks such as, NOOOOO!!!!, aaaaaah and woooooo are all common. Nevertheless, although capable of expressiveness, the range of meaning from these exaggerations is limited to emphasis, surprise and puzzlement. (Crystal, 2006) Spontaneity is probably the most obvious distinction between spoken language and Netspeak. A web page is never spontaneous as it is written, published, and then can be viewed years later. If an article from an online newspaper, or a blog, were viewed, it would not be unusual for said article to be a couple of years old. In terms of written language also, it could have been edited, with its content updated, layout altered or, if it is one of the larger newspapers, its advertising sponsor may have changed. An article on the Guardian website for example could have been written in 2007, yet been updated in 2011 to be relevant to current affairs. During these 4 years, the Guardian may have changed their sponsor from 02 to Hilton Hotels and so the adverts down the side will have changed too, and so on. Whilst these changes will have been made online, the same article printed in the Guardian newspaper in 2007 will remain un-edited in print form. Even instant messaging lacks the spontaneity of speech; a face-to-face conversation normally runs at 5 to 6 syllables a second, instant messaging however, must include time for the recipient to read and type their reply. An email could take even longer to respond months, although unusual , is not impossible. Table 2: Written language criteria applied to Netspeak (Crystal, 2006, p. 47) Web Blogging e-mail Chatgroups Virtual worlds Instant messaging Space-bound Yes, with options Yes Yes, but routinely deleted Yes, but restricted Yes, but restricted Yes, but moves off-screen rapidly Contrived Yes Variable Variable No, but with some adaption No, but with some adaption No Visually decontextuali-sed Yes, but with considerable adaption Yes Yes Yes Yes, but with some adaption Yes, unless camera used Elaborately structured Yes Variable Variable No No No Factually communicative Yes Yes Yes Variable Yes, but with some adaption Variable Repeatedly revisable Yes Variable Variable No No No Prosodically rich Yes, but differently No, with increasing options No No Yes, but differently No We must also consider that a large proportion of the language on the internet is written with the intention an audience of more than one will read it. Emails, along with other messages, are normally, but not always revised before sent, and web pages or articles from online magazines for example are edited before publishing. It is clear from Table 2 that there are a greater number of similarities between Netspeak and written language than Netspeak and Spoken. Equally, there is still a large number of further dissimilarities not yet discussed, for example, a user can interfere with a text from a web page through copy and paste, downloading or other methods not possible using traditional written texts. Thus, it is clear that Netspeak is closer to written language than spoken although there are still dissimilarities; this is where Netspeak has been described as written language pulled towards spoken. Whilst I am prepared to agree with this, I feel that Crystals assertion that Netspeak is a new medium is more accurate. Yes, Netspeak displays characteristics of both written and spoken forms of language, there are too many dissimilarities, at the moment, to enable us to categorically state to which category Netspeak belongs. The internet is constantly growing, likewise language evolving, so this may change. However with language as it currently stands, I feel Crystals assertion that Netspeak is a fourth medium is accurate.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

AngloSaxon Language Essay -- essays papers

AngloSaxon Language Nearly all knowledge of the English language before the seventh century is hypothetical. Most of this knowledge is based on later English documents and earlier documents in related languages (3). The English language of today represents many centuries of development. As a continuous process, the development of the English language began in England around the year 449 with the arrival of several Germanic tribes including: the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes (1, p.49). English, like all other languages, is subject to constant growth and decay (1). Many of the political and social events that have so profoundly affected the English people in their life have generally had an impact on their language (1). The evolution and developmental changes of Anglo-Saxon Language and Modern English have been characterized by three basic periods: Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. Old English was spoken and written in England during the early part of the Middle Ages, from about 600-1100 (2). The language’s earliest stage of development was known as Old English (OE) (3). The four main varieties of the language that were taken to Britain were: Kentish which was associated with the Jutes; West Saxon, from the Southern region, Wessex; Mercian, an Anglian dialect which was spoken in Mercia; and Northumbrian, one of the northernmost Anglian dialects (3). The â€Å"vocabulary expanded chiefly through compounding and derivation,† but there were also a few changes in meaning that contributed to this growth (3, p473). The first written form of the language was runic letters which was replaced by a modified version of the Roman alphabet during the Anglo-Saxon conversion to Christianity (3). Very little of OE cou... ...atus of reasonable importance among the world (1). Although â€Å"the Germanic dialects that migrated in the 5th century to Britain have expanded into a 20th century global common language,† the position that the language will occupy in the future is still uncertain (3p472). Bibliography: Works Cited Baugh, A.C. & Cable, T. (1987). A History of the English Language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Lynch, J. (2002, January). History of the English Language. [Online]. Available Internet: dept.English.upenn.edu Directory: ~lynch/terms File: history McArthur, T. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. â€Å"Oxford English Dictionary.† (2002, January). History of the Dictionary. [Online]. Available Internet: www.oed.com Directory: public/inside File: history

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Human Cloning :: miscellaneous

Human Cloning Science fiction authors have for many years instilled in us the fantastic idea of great armies of cloned men and women, fighting mindless battles for the betterment of human kind. Perfect beings created under the microscope of fantasy to accelerate the evolutionary process, a brave new world, of disease free and identical people. But is there truly an application for human cloning in our 21st century society? Some scientists argue that one could use the cloning process to grow a twin sister for a dying child to allow for an organ donor, a perfect match. A noble idea, if one values a human life as highly as cattle headed for a slaughter house. And what of the dangers involved? A few years ago the world’s eyes turned to the scientific presses, hot with the new discovery that cloning was possible. Dolly the sheep was born, the first successful case of cloning the scientific world had seen. But what we didn’t see is that there were 276 failures before the successful case was achieved. Are we willing to gamble 276 human lives for the research of a non – applicable science? The thought of a perfect being is intriguing. The model child with the blue eyes you never had and the perfectly straight – without having spent three hours in a salon – blond hair that everyone thinks you have. It seems a popular notion that once one genetic modification has been achieved, others will follow. And even if the technology for a bouncing blue eyed catalogue selection is only a gleam in the scientific eye, the possibility of having a three year old Britney Spears is conceivable. The excitement of this sentiment unfortunately masks the reality of it, in that creating a homogeneous race poses a real threat to freedom, the very essence of humanity. At this stage in the development of the cloning process, each cloned Being is viewed as a subject. Dolly was a media spectacle, a lost lamb under the millions of gawking eyes. If a human is cloned, it is highly unlikely that he or she will not be swept up into a similar fate. And under the eyes of the media, not to mention the person who funded the â€Å"subject†, that child will be forced to grow up under a rock of obligatory expectations. Every action and emotion could indeed be shaped and cultivated to suit the perceptions of an idealised person.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Dialectal Awareness in the Reeves Tale Essay -- Reeves Tale Essays

Dialectal Awareness in the Reeve's Tale Throughout any given period of human history, language has been the highest expression of observable and transmissible culture. Individuals generally affiliate themselves with those of like culture and characteristics and tend to shun those who express qualities and beliefs that are different from what is commonly accepted or familiar. Wedges are often driven in the midst of identical groups of people with common beliefs, simply because one particular dialect of their language is strange to the ear of another group, or is difficult for that other group to understand . The differences between the Northern and Southern Middle English dialects of the late 1300's were, for many valid reasons, so distinct that over time lines of demarcation were conceived, as were stereotypical views of the people who spoke the language of the North. But fourteenth century poet Geoffrey Chaucer saw beyond the divisions to the heart of the matter; he recognized the efficacy and validity of the Northern dialects, considering them as no less proper forms of English than his own native "Londonese"-- a mixture of Southern and East Midlands dialects. It is by capitalizing upon these well-known stereotypical views through his distinct dialectal differences that Chaucer helps Oswald the Reeve get "one up" on the impertinent Miller through his own savvy, satirical Canterbury tale. In order to understand the implications that dialectal differences would have had upon the Southern view of a Northern speaker of Middle English, one must first investigate the individual differences that clearly existed between the two forms of the language. As there was no standardization of the ... ...frey. The Canterbury Tales: Nine Tales and the General Prologue. Ed. V. A. Kolve and Glending Olson. New York: W. W. Norton, 1989. Clark, Cecily. "Another Late Fourteenth-Century Case of Dialect Awareness." Review of English Studies 40 (1989): 504-505. Ellis, Deborah S. "Chaucer's Devilish Reeve." Chaucer Review 27 (1995): 150-161. Geipel, John. The Viking Legacy: The Scandinavian Influence on the English and Gaelic Languages. London: David & Charles, 1971. Hughes, Arthur and Peter Trudgill. English Accents and Dialects : An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of British English. Baltimore: University Park P, 1979. Mossà ©, Fernand. "Introduction." A Handbook of Middle English. Trans. James A. Walker. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1952. Woods, William F. "The Logic of Deprivation in The Reeve s Tale." Chaucer Review 30 (1996) : 150-161.

Monday, September 16, 2019

It may be to do with rarity

Why do wear the best suit (dress) when going for an important meeting or interview? Why do we make sure that we do not use a cheap perfume when going on a date? The aspect of self-indulgence is intertwined with the socially directed motives when it comes to luxury. The concept of luxury has been present in various forms since the beginning of civilization. Its role was Just as important in ancient western and eastern empires as it is in modern societies. With the clear differences between social classes in earlier civilizations, the consumption of luxury was limited to the lite classes.It also meant the definition of luxury was fairly clear. Whatever the poor cannot have and the elite can was identified as luxury. The meaning of luxury and the sorts of customers that buy luxury have continually been evolving, but never as dramatically as in the past 20 years. With more potential customers , the luxury sector is today healthier than ever – increasing at around three times the r ate of worldwide wealth. The luxury goods industry is unique in that it is an industry that relies strictly on marketing and promotion to sell products to a specified group of people.It is also an uxury goods industry is very fascinating and the products themselves signify prestige and status. Although a select few are able to afford luxury goods, the vast majority of people who are exposed to advertisements for certain products generally have aspirations of being able to own these products someday. The theme of this course paper is really topical nowadays, because each luxury brand takes care about its image, performance, and service in order to attract more and more customers and to gain customers loyalty.The success of each company depends mostly on clients, so to develop the business successfully each company has o care a lot about marketing aspects and to use various marketing methods of attracting new customers. The purpose of this course paper is to explore which methods of w inning customers attention are more effective. Accordingly, the main objective is to study the major methods of attracting clients on the examples of the leading luxury fashion companies and to analyze their sales volume. The course paper is divided into two parts.The first part is called â€Å"Fashion industry and the place of marketing in it† and it tells about what is called luxury in general, about the global market of luxury goods and methods of attracting more and more ustomers. The second part of the course paper is called â€Å"The analysis of marketing methods of major luxury fashion brands†, where the analysis of the major luxury brands has been made – Burberry group, Gucci group and LVMH, including the statistics, the methods of customer attraction, some key steps to success of each. . Fashion industry and the place of marketing in it 1. 1 . Getting to know luxury Although the term â€Å"luxury products† is broadly defined and therefore basical ly comprehensible, it still needs to be operationalized because it is not yet clear which products are actually â€Å"more than necessary and ordinary compared to the other roducts of their category. † The broad definition of luxury products can be modified and further specified by an operational definition.For this purpose, adequate indicators for a term need to be determined. According to the dimensional analysis, it was decided to operationalize luxury products by their characteristics. The operationalization relies on a literature analysis and an empirical study. The results suggest that consumers perceive that luxury products have six major characteristics including price, quality, aesthetics, rarity, extraordinariness and symbolism.In that ay, the operationalization helps to decide for most products if they are part of what is meant by the term â€Å"luxury product†. The definition of luxury products can be summarized as: Luxury products have more than necessary and ordinary characteristics compared to other products of their category, which include their relatively high level of price, quality, aesthetics, rarity, extraordinariness, and competences of creativity, exclusivity, craftsmanship, precision, high quality, innovation and premium pricing.These product attributes give the consumers the satisfaction of not only owning expensive items but the extra-added psychological enefits like esteem, prestige and a sense of a high status that reminds them and others that they belong to an exclusive group of only a select few, who can afford these pricey items. The luxury sector targets its products and services at consumers on the top-end of the wealth spectrum. These self-selected elite is more or less price insensitive and choose to spend their time and money on objects that are plainly opulence rather than necessities.For these reasons, luxury and prestige brands have for centuries commanded an unwavering and often illogical customer loyalty. Luxury as never been something easy to define, yet this mystery concept is something highly desired by one and all alike. Delving deeper into this mystery and aura of luxury goods by way of comparing them against ‘regular goods' as well as highlighting the characteristics of the luxury industry. Luxury products and brands can be distinguished from the premium segment by their constitutive characteristics.The major characteristics can be considered as dimensions ranging from a minimum level that is also necessary for non-luxury brands to a maximum level that corresponds to the highest form of luxury. As demonstrated in the table below, premium brands rate higher on these dimensions than medium-level brands, but still well below luxury brands. While premium brands still remain down-to-earth and cannot lose sight of the value-for-money ratio, luxury brands are reaching exceedingly reasonable levels in the major luxury dimensions, and some of them even work on topping the current top-of-top luxury level.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

One’s Self Essay

â€Å"Self† expresses an individual person as the object as his or her own reflective consciousness. It expresses one’s own interest of struggle and gain, as well as having their own consciousness of one’s being or identity. In the story â€Å"Yes Ma’am† by Deirdre McCloskey, and the Ted Talk â€Å"embracing otherness, embracing myself† by Thandie Newton both share a conception of one’s self through being mindful of the impact of society and the role that is expected to be played, but is confident and accustomed in what makes them content with themselves mentally. They differ for the reason that Deirdre explains the gesture differences amongst men and women despite the fact that she uses the women gestures to display her feminine qualities. Thandie speaks about going through hardships while she was growing up as well as obtaining her dancing and acting career. The attempt of trying to be accepted, but was repeatedly rejected by society and not being able to fit. However, she explains that â€Å"self† shapes out interactions with others and the world around us. Also how the connections of self and being judged shape the way people feel about themselves. Thandie expresses the fact of not being born with self but developing one as we are taught about ourselves the details, opinions and ideas from parents, family and friends that influence a person’s character. On the other hand those details opinions and ideas become fact to navigate the construction of ourselves (identity). She states that our self-projection is based on others projections and complicates who one is and who one wants to be. Newton Implies that the things individuals do and are successful at is mocked by others because it is perceived to be the â€Å"right way† to do things: also entitled an organized or controlled society. Thandie Newton articulates that â€Å"self is not a living thing†¦things that are affected by society like jobs, money, cars we drive and jewelry devalue life. † Newton evaluates her quote by stating self remains inside, not being defined of what someone has or what someone have earned but being content with knowing who one is intellectually and emotionally. People must use uniqueness and creativity of the mind to be one’s own person. Thandie talks about throughout her life she has been distanced in character and in the color of her skin. She explains that being a black atheist attending a white catholic school every one look at her as different. Thandie’s mother being black from Zimbabwe, and her father being from Cornwall was a problem growing up in the time period she grew up in. Trying to escape the reality of being different she finds a passion for dancing and acting. Newton expressed that she felt at peace in another world with herself. â€Å"Dysfunctional self could plug into another self, not my own and it felt so good†. She states that the nagging selfhood did not exist when she danced. Thandie says that she would put all of her expression into dancing. She would forget about where she was or even who she was and the problems of being an outcast. Deirdre was once a husband for three decades with two children, and after internal struggle she began the process of gender change. Years after her scholarly work in the field of gender studies Deirdre articulates the gestures of men and women and how they carry themselves. She explains how she watched other women in her culture for characteristic gestures and would do them on the spot. She would perceive the women to check their hair frequently, play idly with their jewelry, rest with hands together, and years after her transition she would use these gestures to be noticed as feminine women. While Deirdre was at a conference someone told her, â€Å"last year your motions were a little abrupt; now they are convincingly feminine†. (175) Deirdre and Thandie both explain the concept of being’s one’s self in different ways. Thandie expresses the point of being judged and looked down upon. In addition, she tries to understand the meaning of one’s self by recognizing who she is, and what she wants throughout her life and career. On the other hand, Deirdre has overcome who she once was and is at ease with being a women, and showing off her feminine characteristics. She has found a self that she is able to be comfortable enough to write a book on her highly personal gender crossing experience. In the book Crossing: A Memoir Deirdre states â€Å"My gender crossing was motivated by identity, not by a balance sheet of utility†. Deirdre expresses that she became a women by her choice of how comfortable she felt not because of what society looked at her as. Self† comes from the identity you give yourself or what others see you as not what you do as a career or what car you drive or how successful you are. As Deirdre talks about attempts to take a physical identity that strangers would accept her as a women and Thandie specks on the struggles of growing up as an outcast who never fit it, both authors share a conception of one’s self through being mindful of the impact of society and the role that is expected to be played, but is confident and accustomed in what makes them content with themselves mentally.

Global Warming: Cause and Effect Essay

It is a matter of fact that every person every day faces the problem of global warming affecting his health and endangering the future of our planet. Global warming is defined as increase in overall temperature on the Earth. Global warming occurs when the greenhouse effect hold light and heat from the sun in our atmosphere causing the overall increase in temperatures. Global warming negatively affects not only people, but also animals and plans. Those, who appear unable to adapt to changes, die. Global warming is caused, firstly, by driving cars leading to air and water pollution. Electrical pollution is one cause because coal-fired plants throw many gases and harmful particles (e. g. carbon dioxide) into the air. Furthermore, fossil fuels are dead animals and plants and when they burn pollutants are sent into the Earth atmosphere. One more reason of global warming is deforestation because trees were the main source of converting carbon dioxide into oxygen. Global warming is the result of inadequate use of energetic source instead of sources that cause less pollution. For example, people mostly use petroleum for transportation and electricity instead of working out alternative sources. All these facts caused global warming which effect is really terrifying. Indisputable effect of global people is worsening people’s health as it is difficult for people, especially for older generation, to bear heat. Hot weather affects health increasing the number of heat attacks, and death rates among older generation. Furthermore, we breathe polluted air which can cause troubles with lungs and respiratory tracts. Global warming leads to sea level rise and the water washes away many low lands leaving many people and animals without shelter and food. Global warming affects oceans as the water becomes warmer endangering the life of algae which is the food for fish. The next moment to mention is that global warming causes acid rains destroying everything it is touching. Summing up, global warming alters climatic conditions and leads to species extinction.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Education †Epistemology Essay

Education is something everybody wants to attain but nobody knows how. Nevertheless, many psychologists express an idea that key qualifications and skills, that are required in contemporary life conditions, are gained out of school and college. The following statement may be supported by a number of valuable reasons, namely the students’ immatureness, high informational age’s changeability and predomination of personal experience. As for the first reason, most young learners are reluctant to study. They pay little attention to adults, who make them spend long hours sitting with a book. Pupils and students are by and large considered responsible for their future. To be on the level, it sometimes turns out to be much more enjoyable to play hooky with counterparts, rather than to develop essential skills, at least when young. The second statement covers both the possibility and the necessity of life-long education, which means that in modern world each piece of knowledge is useful. While school and college allow students to acquire specific qualifications, the outer sources of information fill the gap with most urgent news. The real goal is to get through the flow of information and be flexible enough to change one’s point of view immediately. The third reason’s supporting example is the hot teapot, staying on the cooker, which is told to be extremely dangerous. But if we are misfortunate to prove that ourselves, we will certainly become 100 times more careful with kitchen utensil. The same thing might happen to graduates, who have just tasted some bitter working obstacles. Being taught at school and at work will never be the same. To recapitulate the above reasons, either school or college provide us with basic knowledge we are simply too young to concentrate on. Apart from this, we get permanent information that would further be influenced by a variety of conditions. And, finally, one will be ensured in anything in case he/she experiences it oneself. Academic studies should just play a role of a start-up, after which one should progress through different life stages. Therefore, most important things seem to be understood long after graduation.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Myth Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Myth Analysis - Essay Example In that context, Ramayana not only makes an interesting story but also facilitates much guidance to one in the path of righteous behavior. Perhaps, that is why the Hindu religion attributes such a huge importance to this epic. Ramayana not only sheds much light on how a family man ought to lead life and face the hardships one comes across in the sphere of one’s duties as a family man and a public figure, but also has an undeniable spiritual aspect associated with it. Thereby, the concept of Dharma that is of prime relevance in this epic needs to be analyzed and understood so as to have a deep insight into the spirit of Ramayana. As per the Hindu theology, the human intellect and reason face immense challenges from the distractions and deviations created by the five senses. These senses give way to afflictive emotions like anger, greed, lust, attachment and arrogance which deflect a person from the rightful duties expected from one as a social and spiritual being (Narayan 85). Wrapped amidst this anger, greed, lust, attachment and arrogance, it is imperative that each sphere of the human life is defined in the light of an order of actions and duties that lead to the maximum fulfillment of the human life in this world and in the next world (Narayan 85). Thereby, Dharam happens to be a well defined order of actions and duties imposed on the human being as a worldly and spiritual being, enjoined on one so that one could lead a fulfilled and socially constructive life. At least, this is the essence of Dharma in the Indian epic Ramayana. In the light of this definition it needs to be understood that the Hindu rel igion accrues varied duties to an individual towards one’s parents, wife, children and other family members in a hierarchical order that collectively constitute the Dharma or the righteous behavior expected of an individual. In that context, propriety towards one’s parents and the king command a

Thursday, September 12, 2019

The Occupation of France through the eyes of Irne Nmirovsky in Suite Dissertation

The Occupation of France through the eyes of Irne Nmirovsky in Suite Franaise - Dissertation Example Irene Nemirovsky’s book, Suite francaise, written in two sections, ‘Storm in June’ and ‘Dolce,’ starts with an air raid siren going off in the early morning hours before sunrise, yet people are still not so anxious as of yet that they feel they must run away (Nemirovsky 3). (Indeed, many went back to sleep for just a bit longer once the sirens stopped.) Yet, in the distance, there was the sound of heavy guns firing, some of it coming closer and closer. Finally, the sun comes up and the shelling stops. There is a peaceful, yet uncertain pause in the craziness. Something is just waiting around the corner, yet to be seen (Nemirovsky 4). In this glimpse of the novel, we are made aware of the fact that people just barely understand what is happening to them and really cannot believe any rumours and reports they have been getting about the German forces moving their way or that things could be that bad (Nemirovsky 5). As is so often seen, when changes are m ade within a society coming from the outside, people do not want to believe that they are in danger. It is a case of pulling the night mask over one’s eyes so as to wake up and find that everything is alright again and back to normal. In fact, in the novel, this is the beginning of the end of whatever normal they had in their lives. It is a down-hill spiral from that point onwards. Suite francaise presents a number of people in all their diverse personalities, set in a time that will turn to a future of unimaginable horror. At the period of time that Irene writes this book, many of the horrors committed by the Nazis are still unknown definitively to most outside of the European theatre of war, but there had been rumours. Indeed, Irene may have suspected or heard through the rumour mill about what was truly happening to the Jews, of which she was one. Most, however, did not want to believe that such things were happening and it would not be until the end of WWII that the truth of the genocide of the Jewish people and other ‘undesirables’ would be fully revealed and even then, some would not believe it did take place. The background in the novel therefore provides a scenario which is perceived by the characters as they would have known their own world for that time when people did not know that much about what was happening, only that there was a war going on. In our current age of the Internet and social media of modern times, information and news travel around the world in a flash, within seconds or even milliseconds. At the beginning of WWII, however, information would have taken far more time to be dispersed to the general population in varying levels of electronic access by radio. Under the German occupation, much of that news would have been restricted and also turned to propaganda before being released to the general public. Therefore, her characters also react accordingly to what they know at that point in time of occurring history, n ot what we know in our perspective of that history many decades later. Regarding these two points of view, we see what is coming for these people but we can only shout silently to deaf ears of the characters in this story because they are not there yet in that level of knowledge. The time we know of through historical documentation, has not yet occurred for them or if it is occurring, they do not know of it yet, while we, who are in the future, already know where the story is headed, at least

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Discovery and settlement of the new world Coursework

Discovery and settlement of the new world - Coursework Example Their occupation mainly consisted of hunting and farming in a limited manner as the invention of tools and wheel were not made in those times. However, they used few primitive tool and gold and silver for ornaments. None of the tribes had written language. They used pictures to convey their messages or make a record of important events and for long distance messages, used smoke signals and sign language. On the other hand, the tribes in south like Aztec and Inca were more developed and furnished with equipment formed a cultured society. They were at an advance level in mathematics and architecture, due to which proper cities and towns were constructed and great stone temples were made to worship. They had a written language. A common viewpoint about these southern tribes is they had a high level of cultural advancement comparatively to any country of the Western Europe. The disagreement in Anglican Church found its way across Atlantic oceans. The puritans especially were in tolerant about beliefs different than them. They argued that the religious practices of Church of England should not resemble to Catholicism. The aim of British Colonies was to practice religion as to worship God with freedom. However, this approach was only adapted by early colonists, which was not extended further. There were four main New England colonies, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. Later on the survival of English colonies depended on them In 1629, Massachusetts was founded by few puritans of common faith. About one thousand men, women and children started their journey towards America, as they were distressed to see the moral life and future of religion in England. They came to America to practice religion freely and in turn forced the residents to practice the same belief. They punished, whipped and persecuted those who did not belief in puritan faith. Many settlers were forced out from their lands for not practicing those beliefs, which eventually set tled in Rhode Island. In 1644, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts colony due to his belief in, God can be worshipped in many ways. He did not thrust puritan believes on the Indian tribes due to which he was ordered to ship back England but he managed to escape and found Rhode Island, which was the first colony where any or every religion was acceptable to practice. The dissenters were forced to live here and some later on moved to Connecticut. Thomas hooker was the most popular Puritan preacher in the Massachusetts colony, who formed Connecticut colony in the valley of Connecticut river .He angrily fought for religious rights and in 1662 was granted with the charter by the Anglican Church. A written plan was documented for the four colonies and presented to the government by Connecticut. The first big battle among settlers and Native Americans was also fought here and was won bye English settlers. New hemisphere was founded in 1679 with the consent of English King an d it became a royal colony. At one time it was part of Massachusetts. The immigration of tribes, from a nonjudgmental perspective was held acutely. Past events flowed in front our eyes as a story being told. The determination and efforts put by daring explorers who ventured over the world and discovered new lands and exotic things, is a note to be marveled upon. With few sources in hand and limited knowledge about the whereabouts of final destiny these explorers are

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Literature review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 3

Literature review - Essay Example al 2012). For an average individual, buying services and products is a routine and normal behaviour. For compulsive consumers, incapability to control an overwhelming force defines their buying behaviour. It also leads to substantial and always severe results. A compulsive consumer does not derive his or her utility from a service or product but from psychology during purchase power. For the last twenty years, a strong series of investigation in consumer activities has been in discussion of compulsive consumption phenomenon. This was to show it negative results both in the society and to an individual (O’Guinn et. al 2011). Compulsive consumers accrue unmanageable and vast debt amounts which create emotional and economic problems for them. Incapability to settle off debts then turns into a creditor’s problem. Therefore, the importance of devising and understanding intervention methods to manage and control this activity is vital. Other discussion in this paper has made a focus on marketing strategies and tactics’ role as a risky factor in promotion of compulsive consumption. Consequently, it focuses on marketing role in fostering and promoting this problem activity. This paper therefore, reassesses the literature on the problem behaviour as well as summing up the outcomes in three areas: why do consumers behave in this manner, what are the predictors of compulsive consumers and relations with marketing strategies? The marketing ethics as a risky factor in compulsive consumptions is in the discussion. Compulsive consumption The concept of compulsive consumption in literature has a definition of repetitive, chronic purchasing behaviour which takes place as a reaction to negative feelings or events (O’Guinn & Faber 1989). As individuals purchase compulsively, they buy excess product quantities that they cannot afford and do not require (Hoyer & Maclnnis 2007). This is regarded as a reaction to resolve negative feelings, inner deficienci es or unlikeable life experiences (Faber & O’Guinn 1992). This feeling pushes a consumer to buy goods to help clear negative feelings like frustration and stress (Scherhorn 1990). A compulsive consumer is therefore, motivated to buy goods to clear the negative feelings via alterations in self esteem or arousal level and consequently obtain utility from buying process (Hassay & Smith 1996). To be simple, compulsive consumers act on uncontrollable, powerful urges to purchase (Yurchisin & Johnson 2004) Why do individuals buy compulsively? Recent research has concentrated majorly on identification of personality character associated to compulsive consumption (Shoham & Brencic 2003). For instance, (Valence& Fortier, 1988) say that compulsive consumers have a low self-esteem which make one fantasize, put value on material and high depression levels obsession and anxiety ( Koran et. al 2006) along disappointment, frustration and stress. The fantasy in compulsive consumption has been a point of concentration for researcher. Through fantasy one is able to move away from pessimistic feelings and accept oneself in the society (Faber & O’Guinn 1989). It also allows for rehearsal of expected positive results and a way to avoid concentrating on negative issues. Moreover, when one’ Literature Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 8250 words Literature Review - Essay Example To develop an efficient labelling scheme that can handle an ordered tree-structured data model, various scholars have focused on the aim of developing a labelling scheme that is efficient and effective in handling both static and dynamic XML documents and these approaches are discussed below. In the introductory chapter of this thesis, there were specific objectives which defined the motivation of this study, and its goals. The first area of literature relevant to this goal is an overview of labelling schemes. The second part of the literature review presents and discusses other labelling schemes that have commonly been used with XML documents. The first theme is different from the second because in the first, only the overall approach to the functionality of the schemes are presented but in the second, there will be more detail into the schemes by reviewing the strengths, weaknesses and limitations with these other labelling schemes. By so doing, it exposes the research challenges. Lastly, the literature review will identify the weaknesses and limitations of other labelling schemes to propose alternative ideas for new scheme which helps to address the identified weaknesses and limitations. Section 3.2 of the chapter provides an overview of the labelling schemes, while Section 3.3 presents common labelling schemes used to XML data along with their strengths and weaknesses, such as prefix-based schemes (Section 3.3.1), interval-based schemes (Section 3.3.2), multiplication-based schemes (Section 3.3.3) and vector-based schemes (Section 3.3.4). Section 3.4 discusses the scheme’s characteristics to be seen in any ideal scheme. Section 3.5 summarises the literature review and Section 3.6 concludes the chapter. There are four major schemes that are overviewed in this section. These are prefix-based schemes,

Monday, September 9, 2019

Interview methods for children as eyewitnesses Essay

Interview methods for children as eyewitnesses - Essay Example The special circumstances under which children may be interviewed such that their testimony yields credible, admissible evidence requires special support in recent legal reforms. For this reason, advances in legislation in many countries have greatly improved the manner in which children are interviewed in court.1 This is because young children above the age of 5 are highly susceptible to suggestive influences that may affect the credibility of their testimony in court. Suggestibility of very young children Bruck, Ceci, Francoeur & Barr 2 studied the influence of postevent suggestion on children’s accounts of their visit to the doctor. After their DPT shots, children were given one of three types of feedback: (1) that the shot hurt (pain affirming); (2) that it did not hurt (pain denying); and (3) that the shot is over (neutral). One year after, the children were again visited, and were again given either pain denying or neutral feedback in three separate visits. They were als o given either misleading or non-misleading information about the actions of the nurse and doctor. Children given pain denying feedback reported that they did not cry or hardly at all, and said the shot did not hurt, or at least hurt less than the children who received neutral feedback. Also, children who were given misleading information about the actions of the nurse and doctor made more false allegations about their actions than children not given misleading information. ... The study showed that timing of the misinformation affected the memories of single and repeated events, depending on the combination of event-misinformation and misinformation-test delays rather than overall retention interval. In the study by Milne and Bull,4 and that of Holliday,5 the objective was to examine if the cognitive interview would enhance the recall of events when used with children, and whether the cognitive interview increased children’s resistance to suggestive questions. (The cognitive interview focuses on the cognitive processes respondents use to answer survey questions, and the interview is held in some private location such as a laboratory environment.6) In the experiment, eight to ten year old children were shown a video recording of a magic show. The following day they were interviewed individually, some using cognitive interview and some using structured interview. A pre-set list of leading or suggestive questions was given to the children either before or after the interview. The findings were that the children who were interviewed using the cognitive interview had a better and more accurate recall of significantly more details. They were also more resistant to suggestive questions subsequently asked. The study established that the cognitive interview was found to comprise a reliable interviewing technique that enhance recall and enables children to be more resistant to the influence of misleading and suggestive questions. There were implications in other studies. For instance, it was found that both true and false memories tended to increase with age, but did not differ for children who were maltreated as against those who were not.7 Also, suggestibility effects were

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Developing Tyrrells Potato Chips Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Developing Tyrrells Potato Chips - Essay Example For this purpose it may resort to more advertising, other promotions, offering discounts and better customer service. It can also try to compete by making its operations more efficient and thus bring down its costs. Alternatively, it can try to increase its economies of scale by more investment. Sometimes existing market may become so saturated or uneconomical that companies may enter new markets with existing products. Such a strategy falls under the category of market development. The obvious example is the entry of multinational companies into new markets with existing products they were selling in the home country or other markets. This entry could help the company to transfer loyalties of customers to buy its own products. This is very effective if the product is a well-known brand in the world and is being made available for the first time or in large quantities. If a new product is manufactured by a company and it tries to sell it in the same market it operates, then it is classified under product development. The company is confident that its new product will be attractive in the existing market itself. Companies try to market the new product to existing customers or even get new customers to buy them. The product could be completely new or can be used as accessories or add-ons to its existing products. â€Å"Sell new products or services in current markets. These strategies often try to sell other products to (regular) clients. These can be accessories, add-ons, or completely new products. Cross Selling. Often, existing communication channels are used.† (Product/Market Grid (Ansoff) 2008). Product diversification is an instance where a company develops or acquires a new product and market in an entirely new place. There are four ways of diversification that can be used by a company.

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems and their Usage in Essay

Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems and their Usage in Creating a Learning Organization - Essay Example Many organizations rely on the database Oracle to manage data collection and transfer, a system that houses data and stores it based on logical parameters in datafiles (Alapati, 2008). This system categorizes data uploaded through the file server and also facilitates data retrieval. Linux and Microsoft Windows software are two operating systems supported by Oracle’s interface systems. The business implementing enterprise-wide knowledge management systems require what is referred to as structured knowledge systems dedicated to particular internal knowledge. The knowledge consists of human resources documentation, research reports, white papers, presentations and various best practice templates and research. Semistructured knowledge systems utilize email programs and email data, rich digital media content, and organizational brochures. These are managed by Oracle or other similar databases and must be supplemented with retrieval systems to ensure that internal and external users can access the data successfully. ... The external interfaces, consisting of personal computers or mobile devices, generally access the ASP database which is routed internally to Oracle through the web server through various security systems such a firewalling. Thus, in order to engage in setting up an enterprise-wide KM system, there must be ongoing information technology support and expertise to ensure data integrity and end user profiling. All of these systems provide considerable value to the business in several ways. First, once the architecture is set up, it becomes easier to physically map the knowledge resources in the organization to assist workers in understanding how to retrieve real-time information from different divisions. It assists management in creating process maps and resource relevance in the form of diagrams that facilitates more effective knowledge transfer from division to division. Further, it adds value by improving time management (Dataware Technologies, 2010). Without such systems, individuals are forced to scan multiple databases or make contact with those who traditionally maintained tacit knowledge that is not easily transferrable to others. Now that there are adequate storage databases, experts with specialized skills can develop diagrams or best practice (or even instructional brochures) so that individuals without this specialized knowledge can learn about process or systems that drive business and innovation. It also adds value to businesses that maintain off-site support personnel who serves as account representatives or expert/technical support for various customers. With the enterprise-wide KM system, they are now able to access information with the touch of a button through their external interface without having to chase support team members in the

Friday, September 6, 2019

Should college athletes be paid Essay Example for Free

Should college athletes be paid Essay Should College Athletes be Paid? Maybe it was the annual spectacle of March Madness and the fact that UCONN came out of nowhere as an underdog to win their 3rd national NCAA men’s basketball title. Maybe it was the excitement of watching the UCONN football team playing in its first ever BCS Bowl against Oklahoma last year. Whatever he reason, the media and sports critics always ignite a fresh debate over the merits of paying college athletes for their services to the schools. Over the past few months, PBS, ESPN and HBO each aired major specials and documentaries on the relative injustices or justice – deepening our your view of the current college Division 1 (D1) system that allows amateur players to generate billions (that is correct, billions) in revenue each year for their respective schools and the NCAA organization, but prohibits them from receiving a dime of it or any compensation that might be offered from other sources deemed private or public. Coaches can sign multimillion-dollar contracts, endorse products, and rake in lucrative speaking fees. Is this fair? Are we being ethical and righteousness treating young and innocent individuals in this matter? Should we as a society allow these individuals to be taken advantaged in this matter? These are just a few questions many people ask, and the answers are not clear-cut as one might think. To pay or not to pay? The question everyone asks every year since the explosion of D1 College sports over the past couple of decades. The debate over the pros and cons in paying college athletes won’t end until changes are made or someone does something about the current system. My goal throughout this paper will be to present and clarify some of these arguments and why someone could make changes amendable to everyone involved. I will focus my arguments and debate on three major issues. (1) Should we pay students athletes and how much should they be paid? (2) How would they get paid and the challenges in managing this process, can the schools afford it? (3) And finally, what ethical issues, if any, would this pose to our schools and society at large? In conclusion, I will share my opinion and recommendation on what should be done to address this ongoing dispute. My discussion through out this paper will focus on  the â€Å"Primetime† college sports programs in the NCAA; Men’s College Basketball and College Football. As these two sports represent virtually the face of the NCAA and college sports on TV and to the public. While the other college sports are as important to student athletes and schools, they don’t drive the same level of viewing power and revenue numbers for the NCAA and their respective schools. In my opinion college is suppose to be a place you go to earn an education an d determine your future career. Although many college athletes are going to the school that offers them the most money potential at the next level of their carriers, paying the athletes based on their current star power or future potential could have the potential to turn the entire college arena into a bidding war. You would stop seeing athletes go to a place because of tradition or loyalty, but instead to whom would pay them the most money. This in turn would kill the magic of college sports and the purity of the game. Where only a few large schools would have enough capital and buying power to buy the top performing and premier student athletes. If this would to happen, the Butler Bulldogs would have never made it to the NCAA College Basketball finals against UCONN just this past May, as Butler could never compete with the deep pockets of schools like Duke, Syracuse, UCONN, and Georgetown, just to name a few. You may also see free agency enter college sports. Although they would have to sit a year, what would stop players from jumping universities because of money? It would dramatically change the college sport world, as we know it today. Butler again comes to mind, as most of their top athletes would jump ship to another school after they finished 2nd in the 2010 NCCA finals, in the hope of getting more money. In the long run, paying college athletes will make it ok to pay non professional athletes and thus you could then see high schools develop the same principles. If you are paying a player at the college level because they bring in money, then Bloomfield High, New Britain high and other dominant high schools would do the same, and you then re-create the problems I already mentioned. While the arguments above raise good concerns, I do have some major issues with college athletes not getting paid as well. If an ordinary student receives a grant or scholarship based on their intellectual power of monetary limitations, then its perfectly legal for the student to get a job while in college and use that money for whatever they want. Ive seen this happen. One of my friends in college got a $50K  scholarship to Northeastern; no strings attached (except for keeping up the GPA), paid tuition with that money, and then used his talents after schools hours to become an independent contractor whil e still attending school. He made enough money on the side to buy a used car in cash and pay for a couple of spring break vacations and a few other â€Å"luxuries† currently unavailable to college athletes. While college athletes get free room, board, books, tuition and fees covered by the scholarship, they don’t have the luxury or option to earn extra money for additional expenses (car, travel, vacation, nice dinner, etc.) as they spend most if not all of their time practicing or traveling when outside the classroom, limiting the amount of time they have to find any part time job. On the other hand, they are plenty of non-athletic students in college who have an equally difficult time having a normative college experience because the job that they do work is used to cover the enormous expense of room, board, books, tuition and fees. Furthermore, many of those non-athlete students have to take on mounds and mounds of debt to be able to afford the very things the athletes are given. I bet more than a few of them would gladly give up their play money for the chance to finish college without being $100-150k in the hole. That being said, I am convinced that student athletes deserve t he same opportunity regular students have. They should have the opportunity to earn additional money to cover expenses currently covered by their parents, friends family or bank loans. Do I feel that the players should be paid some amount of money to pay for additional expenses? Yes. The amount of money these kids generate is in the Billions and they get nothing (monetary) in return, as if these athletes use college as the tool that it is, then they should at least be getting an education. However, it does not make sense for college players to have no money and barely able to get by, while someone makes a substantial amount of money off their talents. However, the payment should be controlled and limited to a defined amount. More on this a little later. In the past, Maryland’s head basketball coach Gary Williams made a public statement in which he denounced the present system of not paying athletes. His proposal was to give those players in revenue-producing sports a stipend of $200/month. While I agree with Mr. Williams approach and argument, I disagree with the payment amount and structure. In my opinion his argument makes perfect sense and achieves a realist solution. He  points out that college athletics – specifically basketball and football are making a fortune for the NCAA, the schools, the coaches, the staff and filtering down to just about everyone else in the athletic department and sometimes even to other parts of the school. However, not a c ent is being given to those who are actually providing the product on the court and field. You know, the product that we love to watch and talk about during water breaks in the office, the product that creates so much exhilaration every weekend to millions of people across the US and world! Again, I realize the argument is that they are being given free housing and a free scholarship, etc. The problem is that there isn’t another kid at the school that has to have a life based upon $0 extra income to buy what he wants. As I mentioned above, these individuals don’t have the time to work and earn extra money, so they will be tempted to take some extra cash or a trip or a meal at a fancy restaurant from a â€Å"friend† or â€Å"acutance†. Who wouldn’t be? And there lies the problem. The student athletes under the current system will always be faced with the hard decision not to break the rules and laws, which honestly, other students don’t have to deal with. As I pointed out before and Williams makes the same point, regular kids are allowed to receive living expenses and spending money as part of financial aid from family, friends or even strangers. Since athletes cannot, they are clearly being discriminated against. The student athlete might bring thousands if not millions of dollars to the school and more importantly the NCAA in one way or the other, but how much does any other student bring to the school? In addition to the moral argument of making students paid employees of the school while attending school, there’s the cost argument. Can the NCAA and schools really afford it? The answer might surprise and shock you at the same time. The NCAA negotiated an $11 Billion (with a B) deal for the 2011 NCAA tournament. Not the regular season, just the tournament – and that’s just NCAA basketball. Doing some analysis show that, there are 346 Division One schools in basketball. If each one of them has 13 players, that’s 4,498 players. Divide $11 Billion by 4,498 and you get†¦ over $2 million per player! These figures clearly indicate that both the NCAA and schools could afford to pay the students athletes some monetary figure, more on that later. Clearly the argument is no longer about money! Or is it? Between 2004 and 2010, fewer than 7 percent of all Division I sports programs  generated positive net revenue, according to NCAA data. Fewer than 12 percent of all Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) schools — 14 out of 120 — did so in fiscal year 2009. For that matter, the NCAA reports that only 50 percent to 60 percent of FBS football and basketball programs make money. In other word s, a significant chunk of top-level FBS programs are losing money. Should those programs be obliged to pay their football and basketball players, even though they aren’t actually producing a net profit. Paying student athletes large sums of money based on their natural ability would destroy the college sports, as we know it today and potential drive schools out of business into bankruptcy. Obviously a large majority of D-1 schools can’t afford to pay students athletes even if it was legal today. So, where’s the money going? As I mentioned before, the NCAA is signing record deals with the networks, shouldn’t that money go back to the schools? Nobody can answer this question with certainty, but one thing is clear, the NCAA could afford to compensate the student athletes, based on their current revenue streams. My recommended solution will address this disparity in D-1 schools and their ability to lash out money to pay student athletes. Indeed, with many coaches and college experts, the biggest problem with paying players isnt a money issue. Its the legal and structural chaos that would result. In an interview with PBSs Frontline that aired a few weeks back, NCAA president Mark Emmert said it would be utterly unacceptable to convert students into employees. Emmert had reason to be adamant. What happens when college athletes become employees? Can they collectively bargain? Can they strike? Do injured players receive workmans comp? Are players at state schools eligible for subsequent retirement benefits? Do only football and mens basketball players receive salaries? Should a star point guard earn more than a third-string center? Should an All-American quarterback earn more than his entire offensive line? Who decides and who controls all of these decisions? The NCAA? The School? Since student athletes are prohibited in gathering any additional money, the NCAA is making efforts to help support the future of college sports by helping to funnel $750 million over 11 years into funds strictly designed to benefit these athletes. This money is ideally going to be used by the NCAA to help fund student-athletes who are looking for clothing, emergency travel, educational and medical expenses, personal needs and also a injury  insurance. Even though this is a very nice touch by the NCAA organization, it however does not address the real issue of allowing college athletes in earning money, which can be used a the discretion of the student-athlete. Until that day comes, the future student-athletes have a lot of hard work, dedication and lessons to be learned from before they are all worthy enough of being able to accept salaries for their individual efforts. It is a fact that since its birth, the NCAA has grown into a multi-billion dollar industry and some experts feel college athletes should begin to benefit financially from the large revenues. The NCAA brought in more than a billion dollars more than what the NBA generated globally in the 2009-10 season, according to the most recent estimate from Forbes. One of the biggest revenue-creating sports a part of the NCAA today is college football that has come a long way since the establishment of the Harvard, Yale and Princeton football association. Recently in the last five years a few football teams have financially stood out amongst their competitors in the NCAA. NCAA players, coaches and officials constantly argue for the paying of student-athletes because for them the primary reason for massive profit earnings is due to the thanks of the hard work of their student-athletes. College athletes are constantly seeing their jersey numbers on the racks of their campus bookstores but instead of seeing any of the profits all they see is their coaches racking in multi-million dollar contracts year after year. In total there are 119 Division I-A football teams competing in the NCAA today and out of those a reported 42 of those team’s coaches received more than $1 million salaries, at least nine receiving more than $2 million. In Basketball, the University of Connecticut last year signed a 5-year contract with coach Jim Calhoun worth approximately $11M – including speaking and media fees. This is one of the biggest reasons why players argue for their own salary incomes due to the financial successes of their own coaches and seeing them living extravagant lifestyles. Meanwhile, would each salaried player on a given team be paid the same amount? If not, who would decide whether the All-American linebacker deserved more money than the All-American wide receiver, or whether Kemba Walker was more valuable than the star power forward, Jeremy Lamb. Would 18-year-olds be negotiating â€Å"contracts† with officials in their athletic department? Would they be hiring agents before high-school graduation? And how would all this affect  those sports programs that depend on football and basketball revenue to stay afloat? To pose an discuss these questions is to realize that paying college athletes merit salaries based on their â€Å"book value† is simply unrealistic and unfeasible. Still, the current NCAA rules are deeply flawed, and many players are indeed being ex ploited. Let’s face it: Big-time college football and basketball basically function as minor-league systems for the NFL and the NBA, respectively, while creating massive profits for everyone except the athletes. Scholarships are financially valuable, sure. But according to many experts, the average scholarship falls about $5,000 short of covering an athlete’s â€Å"essential† college expenses. Closing that gap — My proposed solution would address the majority of these concerns, if not completely eliminate them. Many experts have reach a determination that college sports have already effectively become professionalized. Given the N.C.A.A.’s abandonment of standard honored amateur principles, many experts argued, that there’s not a good enough reason preventing athletes from engaging in the same entrepreneurial activities as their celebrity coaches. Big-time college athletes should be able to endorse products, get paid for speaking engagements and be compensated for the use of their likenesses on licensed products. After all, aren’t non-athlete students allowed to go on a TV show like â€Å"MTV SpringBreak† and receive money for their appearances and efforts? If non-athletes students are a llowed, why can’t students athletes appear on ESPN shows and get paid for it? They should! They should be allowed to also negotiate an actual contract with the N.B.A. as part of a final project in a finance class, and have an agent from the day they decide to. In the past few years, the NCAA has cracked down on players taking illegal benefits from â€Å"agents and boosters†. USC was under two years of probation for the Reggie Bush affair. Cecil Newton openly shopped his son around to SEC schools. And just a few months back, the University of Connecticut was found guilty and punished by the NCAA for violating its rules and laws. Schools, coaches and athletes decide to take these risks and break the rules because they know what’s a stake, millions and millions of dollars. All of these things are clearly against NCAA rules, but how fair are the rules? We all know how much money colleges bring in off of the hard work of these kids, and we all know what its like to be young and poor. Should college football players be paid or at least allowed to accept benefits? After long  hours of research, deliberation and studying both sides of the argument in paying student athletes for their services to the NCAA and respective schools, I came up with the following recommendations. Frist and foremost, student athletes should continue to receive scholarships from their schools with the same benefits as they receive today. I also think that we should not pay large salaries to these athletes based on their personal ability or star potential as it would turn college into even more of a business and less of an academic institution. Furthermore if would open the floodgates for paying athletes very large sums of money. It has been said again and again; more money more pr oblems. However, I also believe that it is unfair for these athletes not to receive anything for the services they provide to their schools which yield millions and millions of dollars in profits, prestige recognition and increase in student enrollments, all very positive for the school’s bottom line. In my opinion, students’ athletes should receive from the NCAA NOT their schools a yearly payment (for all 4 years) equal to the average school annual tuition amount– in other words, take all D1 schools, average out the full tuition across all schools and make that the payment to every school athlete. This money would come from the lucrative contracts the NCAA signs with TV networks, clothing companies, etc. While in some cases this represents more income than what students could need, it would eliminate calculating complex and unfair student payments, and give student athletes additional spending money. It would also avoid any student athlete from choosing one school over the other because of this payment, as it would be the same independent of what school they eventually select. This approach would also eliminate the fact that a majority of D-1 schools have a negative balance sheet and realistically can’t afford to pay any student athlete’s salaries. If not else, it certainly would be a great deterrent for the vast majority of otherwise good players, but not ready to jump to the NFL or NBA early.

Influence from Mexican and Puerto Ricans in the Us Culture Essay Example for Free

Influence from Mexican and Puerto Ricans in the Us Culture Essay The U. S. culture has been saturated with Mexican and Puerto Rican influences. Influence is defined as a cognitive factor that tends to have an effect on what you do. I believe most of the influences are good but there are also some that are bad. The two major influences that will be brought up would be the influence of human creativity and violence. Puerto Ricans had a unique blend of human creativity. â€Å"Fueled by that political awakening, a cultural renaissance emerged among Puerto Rican artists. † By the 1960’s salsa music began to emerge. Puerto Ricans rooted this category of music especially in the New York area. Fania Records became the dominant record label in the early salsa music scene. Juan Gonzalez mentioned artist such as Eddie and Charlie Palmieri, Willie Colon and Ray Barretto. They provoked with there politically charged lyrics. It also sprang up writers such as Piri Thomas and Nicholasa Mohr mentioned by Juan Gonzalez. Piri Thomas was born in the Spanish Harlem section of Manhattan and is known for his best seller autobiography â€Å"Down These Mean Streets†pg63 and describes his struggle having Puerto Rican heritage. Nicholasa Mohr her works also told of the difficulties of growing up in Puerto Rican communities in the New York area. As more Puerto Rican came to into the States a big clash of racial identity rose. Black and White was a struggle in itself then Brown came in to the mix it mad things twist. â€Å"A dwindling tax base, brought about by the flight of industry and skilled white workers to the suburbs, massive disinvestment by government in public schools and infrastructure, and the epidemics of drug and alcohol abuse, all tore at the quality of city life†Pg 64. Lack of investment in the infrastructure and public schools by the government was a major contributor to this especially since most did not know how to speak English and the teachers did not know how to translate to the students. â€Å"The third generation of Puerto Ricans, those who came of age in the late 1980s and early 1990s, found themselves crippled by inferior schools, a lack of jobs, and underfunded social services. They found their neighborhoods inundated with drugs and violence. They grew up devoid, for the most part, of self-image, national identity, or cultural awareness. They became the lost generation. †Pg63 Mexicans also had there share of influencial human creativity. Mexicans are known for developing corrido music. They were smart about this music though because they were used to inform. They had dates names warnings and some were stories of crime or love. † The average corrido was usually so filled with dates, names, and factual details that it functioned not only as entertainment but also as a news report, historical narrative, and commentary for the mass of Mexicans who were still illiterate†. pg124. To change up the creativity from the arts to a more meaningful influence would be the founding of MAYO and no not the one you eat but Mexican American Youth Organization. This was intended to protect the civil rights of Mexican Americans. â€Å"One of the most influential groups to arise during the period was the Mexican American Youth Organization (MAYO), founded in San Antonio by Willie Velazquez, a young community organizer for the Catholic Bishop’s Committee on the Spanish Speaking, and Crystal City’s Jose Angel Gutierrez. †pg 69. Mexicans have been picked on for decades and are still being hated upon. What was heavily impacted were schools and nothing was done about it. MAYO staged school walk outs to gain power. These acts would allow them to earn seats on school boards which in turn allowed them to participate in deciding what was best for their own people. In turn violence also was majorly influence. The US culture was raised to hate Mexicans. † Once the Great Depression hit and unemployment surged among whites, though, not even Mexicans who spoke fluent English escaped the anti-immigrant hysteria. More than 500,000 were forcibly deported during the 1930s, among them many who were U. S. citizens. † Speaking spanish a lot of times was a burden for mexicans which made them targets since most that all they spoke. To conclude Puerto Ricans and Mexicans have influenced the US culture. It still hasn’t stopped it continues to. More than likely it will still influence for many more years to come. They have been put down but they come right back up and stronger. They have given a lot to stop and to soak in many years of heritage. So go dance to some salsa or sing a corrido for a change.

Thursday, September 5, 2019

Health Essays Gender Health Disparities

Health Essays Gender Health Disparities Mens Health: Men Are far from being the Stronger Sex, they are Actually the Opposite Introduction: Gender-based Health Disparities While the study of gender in health has allowed for tremendous strides, there has been little benefit to advancing the understanding of mens health (Habben, 2005). While the majority of social, political, legal, and religious systems favor men, this favoritism has not served to improve mens health status (Lantz, Fullerton Harshburger, 2001, p. 189). Generally, men suffer more life-threatening and chronic illnesses such as heart and cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, certain cancers, and emphysema (Lantz, Fullerton Harshburger, 2001, p. 189). Men have higher age-adjusted mortality rates for the 15 leading causes of death than do women (Williams 2003, p. 724). Furthermore, they have at least two times higher death rates than women for suicide, homicide, accidents and cirrhosis of the liver (p. 724). The two leading causes of death for men in the U.K. are circulatory disease (including heart disease and stroke) and cancer (NSO, 2004a). Numerous health statistics illustrate the increased vulnerability of men to certain illnesses. In 2001, almost half of men were considered overweight compared to one-third of women (NSO, 2004b), men are twice as likely as women to exceed the daily benchmark for alcohol consumption (NSO 2004b), and life expectancy at birth is lower for males than for females at 75.7 vs. 80.4 years (NSO 2004c). In the United States, men have a higher incidence of seven out of the ten most common infectious diseases, and three quarters of deaths from myocardial infarction occur in men (Courtenay, 2000, p. 1385). Cancer is a prime example of the effects of male gender on health (Nicholas, 2000). Cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, bladder, and liver occur highly disproportionately in men (Nicholas, 2000, p. 27). Further, men are more likely to die from cancer than are women. Biology vs. Gender Socialization Differences in health between men and women are not merely biological, but also include lifestyle differences and gender socialization factors (Peate, 2004). Gender differences in health and longevity can be explained partly by health behaviors (Courtenay, 2000, p. 1386), and recent discussions of mens health have emphasized the importance of masculine gender role socialization (e.g., Nicholas, 2000, p. 27). Mens concepts of maleness or masculinity guide their decisions about accepted behaviors. For example, risk-taking behaviors such as excessive alcohol or tobacco use are influenced by beliefs about masculinity (Nicholas, 2000, p. 28). The study of mens health goes beyond an emphasis on physiological structure and biological sex to include a broader analysis of social, cultural, and psychological issues pertaining to the traits, norms, stereotypes and roles associated with male gender (Brooks, 2001, p. 285). Men, in their quest to embody a strong masculine role, may predispose them selves to psychological, emotional, and behavioral disorders (Brooks, 2001, p. 287). Gender may be defined as the expectations and behaviors that individuals learn about femininity and masculinity  (Sabo, 2000, p. 133). Gender socialization influences health-risk behavior, mens perceptions of and use of their bodies, and their psychosocial adjustment to illness (Sabo, 2000, p. 133). While establishing his braveness or manliness to others, a man who conforms rigidly to the masculine ideal by ignoring pain and other illness symptoms is at increased risk of developing chronic diseases (Sabo, 2000, pp. 135-136). Beliefs about masculinity play a role in the health of men, and may lead them to engage in harmful behaviors or to refrain from health-protective actions (Williams, 2003, p. 727). Male-like qualities such as individuality, autonomy, stoicism, and physical aggression, as well as avoidance of showing emotion or displaying weakness may combine to lead to poorer health in men (Williams, 2003, p. 726). In addition, gender roles can help explain mens reluctance to seek medical care, their avoidance of expressing emotions, engagement in unsafe sexual behaviors, drug use, crime, and dangerous sports (Lee Owens, 2002). Further, men may be more likely to identify themselves with their work and to spend less time with family (Lee Owens, 2002). While men who are socialized to have more feminine attributes may be more likely to be aware of and concerned about their health and health-compromising behaviors (Kaplan Marks, 1995), men who step outside the gender boundary may be perceived as deviant (Seymour-Smith, Wetherell Pheonix, 2002). Gender socialization may influence the extent to which boys adopt masculine behaviors. Boys are encouraged to play like other boys and discouraged from playing with or like girls. To do otherwise could lead to rejection. Parents often instill in boys that they are strong and that big boys dont cry ideas which help form the boys personality. The masculinization process may make men have difficulty asking for help (Peate, 2004). Society places great value on the stereotypical image of the male as strong and silent, contributing to the idea that men are invulnerable (Fleming, Spiers, McElwee OGorman, 2001, p.337). While women value interdependence (e.g., consulting others and accepting help ), men value independence and avoid acknowledging a need for help (Lantz, Fullerton Harshburger, 2001, p. 190). Strict adherence to idealized masculinity may lead to a number of mental and physical health problems. This may be due not only to strict adherence to a rigid masculine role, but also to a sense of failure when men fail to live up to this role (Nicholas, 2000, p. 31). Such failure may lead to increased anxiety, psychological distress, poor relationships, cardiovascular reactivity, anger, decreased self-esteem, and unwillingness to seek health services (p. 31). Risk-taking Men are more likely than women to engage in risky behaviors and to hold risky beliefs (Courtenay, McCreary Merighi 2002). They are more inclined than women to engage in behaviors that increase morbidity and mortality such as smoking and alcohol abuse (Williams, 2003, p. 727). Men and boys are socially pressured to endorse gendered societal prescriptions such as beliefs that men are strong, independent, self-reliant, and tough (Courtenay, 2000, p. 1387). As a reflection of such gender stereotypes, men often exhibit risk-taking behaviors such as smoking, poor diet and exercise habits, drinking to excess, and overworking (Lantz et al., 2001, p. 191). While men tend to know less about health than women, they also perceive themselves as less vulnerable to illness than do women (Nicholas, 2000, p. 29). As a result, men may be less aware of recommended screening and common symptoms of disease. More men than women smoke cigarettes and use excess alcohol. These behaviors often occur together, thereby increasing the incidence of oral and throat cancers (Nicholas, 2000, p. 28). Excess alcohol and tobacco use is a risk factor in 80% of cases of head and neck cancers (p. 28). The causes of death that affect the most mencompared to womenare those most influenced by behavior or personal choice (e.g., suicide, homicide, accidents, and cirrhosis of the liver; Habben, 2005). Alcohol and illicit drug abuse are largely male problems in which the social construction of masculinity plays a significant role (Brooks, 2001, p. 290). Alcohol abuse is a major contributor to mortality from liver cirrhosis, accidents, suicide, and homicidethese being the four causes of death where men double the rate of women (Williams, 2003, p. 727). Further, men are more likely to believe that high-risk behaviors will not impair their performance (e.g., drinking and driving; Williams, 2003, p. 727). Throughout life, men are at a higher risk of dying than are women. Lifestyle factors related to this include an increased likeliness of having accidents, having a dangerous occupation, and experiencing higher risks when at work (Peate, 2004). Men tend to underestimate the risks involved in physically dangerous activities and may feel that enduring physical punishment and pain are part of being male (Nicholas, 2000, p. 29). Men are more likely than women to work in hazardous occupations such as construction, agriculture, oil, transportation, and forestryoccupations that increase mens exposure to known carcinogens such as asbestos, benzene, chromium, and vinyl chloride (Nicholas, 2000, p. 28). In addition, risk-taking may include playing of dangerous sports (e.g., football or rugby), or engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. Taking risks confirms a mans masculinity to himself and to others. Further, gender is related to power, and the pursuit of power may lead men to engage in harmful behaviors (Courtenay, 2000, p. 1388). Behaviors such as refusing to take sick time off from work, insisting that they need little sleep, and boasting that alcohol or drug use does not impair their driving serve to demonstrate the dominant norms of masculinity (Courtenay, 2000, p. 1389). Under-utilization of Health Care Services Since illness is seen as a threat to masculinity, men are less likely to seek help when ill (Fleming, et al., 2001, p. 337). This may be related to the male tendency to suppress the expression of need and to minimize pain (Williams, 2003 p. 728). Men tend to reinforce social beliefs that they are less vulnerable than women, that their bodies are stronger than those of women, and that caring for ones health is feminine (Courtenay, 2000, p. 1389). In fact, utilization of health care and exhibiting positive health behaviors or beliefs are constructed as part of idealized femininity, and must be resisted in the expression of masculinity (p. 1389). Mens reluctance to discuss personal concerns may extend into the patient-provider relationship, where men may be less likely to fully report their health history and the exact details of their illness symptoms (Lantz, Fullerton Harshburger, 2001, p. 194). Men are less likely to engage in health behaviors such as reporting symptoms, practicing health-promotion, and utilizing health care services (p. 189). Medical encounters also differ between male and female patients, with men receiving less time, fewer services, less information and advice, and less encouragement to change health behaviors (p. 728). Further, when men do receive care, they are less likely to adhere to their medical regimen (p. 728). The socially conditioned suppression of pain by men may lead to delayed help-seeking (Brownhill, Wilhelm, Barclay Parker, 2002). Gender socialization may be responsible for the fact that men value more concrete rather than abstract information (Lantz et al., 2001, p. 194). Thus, men may be more likely to ignore vague somatic symptoms and to wait for more concrete signs of disease, thereby delaying treatment until the more advanced stages of disease (p. 194). Often, when men seek care, their disease process is more advancedleading to higher morbidity and mortality (Lantz et al., 2001, p. 191). While women are more likely to seek care for symptoms, men generally seek medical care for employment or insurance reasons (p. 191). Delaying medical intervention leads to a state of urgency once assistance is finally sought (p. 191). In men, emotional distress in men may be masked by outward symptoms such as chest pain, deliberate self-harm, drug or alcohol abuse (Brownhill et al., 2002). Further, men expect health care professionals to be able to read their signs and symptoms without themselves having to disclose anything (Brownhill, et al., 2002). Other reasons for mens reluctance to seek health care may include a lack of understanding of making appointments, inconvenient opening hours, long waits for appointments, lack of trust, and fear of being judged. Men may feel social pressure to not reveal any weakness that may lessen their masculinity, and thus may not seek care. Solutions might include providing services that men can access anonymously (e.g., via the internet or telephone help-lines), and extending opening hours of services to include evenings and weekends. Conclusion: Possible Solutions for improving Mens Health Health educators and advocates for mens health should encourage men to consider the effects of gender on health behaviors and outcomes (Sabo, 2000, p. 139). Health education for men should address enhancing mens awareness that some of the culturally supported masculinity norms can lead to health-damaging behaviors (Williams, 2003, p. 730). Williams suggests that the meaning of manhood needs to be re-defined in a more positive way along with changes in cultural institutions and social structures, thus reinforcing positive health behaviors in men (Williams, 2003, p. 730). Modification of health behaviors may be one of the most effective ways of preventing disease (Courtenay, 2000, p. 1386). One solution could be to provide earlier socialization of boys and young men that health promoting behavior is positive, that reporting health concerns is not a sign of weakness, and that better health encourages a more positive self-image (Lantz, Fullerton Harshburger, 2001, p. 195). The development of the male gender role should focus less upon the roles of protector and provider, and should emphasize more greatly mens abilities as caregivers and nurturers (Brooks, 2001, p. 293). Such emphasis would enhance the presence of nurturance, attachment, and intimacy in the social construction of masculinity. References Brooks, G. (2001). Masculinity and mens mental health. Journal of American College Health, 49: 285-297. Brownhill, S., Wilhelm, K., Barclay, L., and Parker, G. (2002). Detecting depression in men: A matter of guesswork. International Journal of Mens Health, 1: 259-80. Courtenay, W. (2000). Constructions of masculinity and their influence on mens well-being: a theory of gender and health. Social Science Medicine, 50: 1385-1401. Courtenay, W., McCreary, D., and Merighi, J. (2002). Gender and ethnic differences in health beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Health Psychology, 7: 219-31. Fleming, P., Spiers, A., Mc Elwee, G. and OGorman, M. (2001). Mens perceptions of health education methods used in promoting their health in relation to cancer. The International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 4: 337-344. Habben, C. (2005). Mens health in primary care: Future applications for psychologists. In James, L. and Folen, R. (Eds.); The primary care consultant: The next frontier for psyc hologists in hospitals and clinics, pp. 257-265. Kaplan, M. and Marks, G. (1995). Appraisal of health risks: The roles of masculinity, femininity, and sex. Sociology of Health and Illness, 17: 206-21. Lantz, J., Fullerton, J. and Harshburger, R. (2001). Promoting screening and early detection of cancer in men. Nursing and Health Sciences, 3: 189-196. Lee, C. and Owens, R. (2002). Issues for a psychology of mens health. Journal of Health Psychology, 7: 209-357. Nicholas, D. (2000). Men, masculinity, and cancer: Risk-factor behaviors, early detection, and psychosocial adaptation. Journal of American College Health, 49: 27-33. NSO (2004a). National Statistics; Gender; Health: Women Live almost 5 years longer than men. National Statistics Online. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on 23 March, 2005 at http://www.statistics.gov/uk/cci/nugget_print.asp?ID=438 NSO (2004b). National statistics; Gender; Health related behavior: More overweight men than women. National Statistics Online. Retri eved from the World Wide Web on 23 March, 2005 at http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget_print.asp?ID=439 NSO (2004c). National statistics; Health; Health expectancy: Living longer, more years in poor health. National Statistics Online. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on 23 March, 2005 at http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget_print.asp?ID=918 Peate, L. (2004). Mens attitudes towards health and the implications for nursing care. British Journal of Nursing, 13: 13-26. Sabo, D. (2000). Mens health studies: Origins and trends. Journal of American College Health, 49: 133-142. Seymour-Smith, S., Wetherell, M., and Pheonix, A. (2002). My wife ordered me to come: A discursive analysis of doctors and nurses accounts of mens use of general practitioners. Journal of Health Psychology, 7: 253-67. Williams, D. (2003). The health of men: Structured inequalities and opportunities. Public Health Matters, 93: 724-31.